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National Spatial Data Infrastructure: Concepts and Components Douglas Nebert U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee Secretariat September 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "National Spatial Data Infrastructure: Concepts and Components Douglas Nebert U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee Secretariat September 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Spatial Data Infrastructure: Concepts and Components Douglas Nebert U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee Secretariat September 2004

2 2 What is a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)? “The SDI provides a basis for spatial data discovery, evaluation, and application for users and providers within all levels of government, the commercial sector, the non-profit sector, academia and by citizens in general.” --The SDI Cookbook

3 3 Who needs access to coordinated geographic information? Land Records Adjudication Disaster Response Transportation Management Water, gas & electric planning Public Protection Defense Natural Resource Management Telecommunications Infrastructure Economic Development Civic Entrepreneurs Regional Stewards

4 4 Components of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Policies & Institutional Arrangements (governance, data privacy & security, data sharing, cost recovery) People (training, professional development, cooperation, outreach) Data (digital base map, thematic, statistical, place names) Technology (hardware, software, networks, databases, technical implementation plans)

5 5 Why build an SDI? Build data once and use it many times for many applications Integrate distributed providers of data: Cooperative governance “Place-based management” Share costs of data creation and maintenance Support sustainable economic, social, and environmental development

6 6 The outcomes of an NSDI The participant members (contributors and users) are known and can interact Core and specialized map and data services are easily discoverable and accessible Decision-makers and analysts have ready access to the right geo-information for input to analytical and visual models – indicators, models, trends, patterns

7 7 Benefits of an NSDI Development of a private sector involved with data sales and added value A chance for communities of all sizes and capabilities to participate in the knowledge economy A more informed voter/citizen Increased access to distributed geo- information through standards

8 Creating the motivation Development of an SDI should be a voluntary and have long-term vision Government roles may require both incentives and directives Commercial and non-commercial participants should find SDI appealing as a market The correct solution for NSDI must be defined by the community

9 Government Role in Infrastructure National Interstate Highway system built for defense logistics, now baseline for commerce DARPA/ARPA advanced Internet infrastructure design, establishing the backbone Promotes standards to enable compatible solutions We cannot imagine the fullest extent of how the NSDI will be populated or what applications will live upon it!

10 Here’s one overview of the pieces of the NSDI

11 F The first task is to inventory who has what data of what type and quality F A standardized form of metadata was published in June 1994 by the FGDC. An international standard now exists and will be adopted by the US beginning in 2005MetadataMetadata

12 Metadata... Provides documentation of existing internal geospatial data resources within an organisation (inventory) Permits structured search and comparison of held spatial data by others (catalog) Provides end-users with adequate information to take the data and use it in an appropriate context (documentation)

13 F Metadata describes existing data holdings for order, retrieval, or local use F Metadata should be used to describe all types of data, emphasis on ‘truth in labeling’ MetadataMetadata Geospatial Data

14 F Special-use thematic layers are built and described as available geospatial data F Common data layers are being defined in the Framework activity MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

15 Framework supports... Community development of sets of spatial features, feature representation, and attribution to a lowest common denominator Participant collecting, converting, or associating information to common Framework data standards with an encoding format to facilitate exchange Multiple representations of real-world features at different scales and times by feature identifier and generalization

16 ServicesServices The NSDI includes the services to help discover and interact with data MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

17 This Discovery Service is the core function of the NSDI Clearinghouse for geospatial information and the GOS portal Services An important common service in SDI is that of discovering resources through metadata Discovery Access Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

18 NSDI Clearinghouse Network and portal Supports uniform, distributed search through a single user interface to all domestic metadata collections to find data and maps A free advertising mechanism to provide world access to your holdings under the principle of “truth-in-labeling” Search for spatial data through fields and full- text in the metadata and categorical browsing Links through to full data access and online web mapping services, where available

19 Services Discovery Access Processing F This may be made via static files on ftp or via online data streaming services. These services deliver ‘raw’ data, not maps. F A second class of services provides standardised access to geospatial information MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

20 Data Access Concepts Standardisation of data access implies several things: Definition of model used for the data to be exchanged Adoption of an exchange or encoding format Agreement on data access protocol(s) Organisations should strive to identify the mode(s) of operation to simplify data exchange

21 Data Access Examples Administrative boundary data conforming to the GlobalMap data model, packaged as Vector Product Format (VPF), made accessible over ftp Panchromatic 10m, single-band, rectified imagery to a specific coordinate reference system, packaged as GEOTIFF with LZW compression, made accessible on CD-ROM

22 Services Discovery Access Processing A third class of services provides additional processing on geospatial information MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

23 Processing Services  These include capabilities that extend and enhance the delivery of data through processes applied to raw data:  Web Mapping Services  Symbolization  Coordinate Transformation  Analysis or topologic overlay services  Routing services

24 F Standardization makes SDI work F Standards touch every SDI activity Discovery Standards Access Services Processing Standards include specifications, formal standards, and documented practices MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

25 FGDC Standards... Created by thematic subcommittees as national standards, representing community consensus view of data theme or common approach Submitted for 90-day public review Reviewed across disciplines for uniformity Published as US Federal Standards Standards by ISO, OGC, W3C and other standardization bodies are used FIRST, if they exist!

26 Roles of standards bodies OpenGISConsortium Software interfaces (Implementation Specifications) ISO TC 211 Foundations for implementation. (Abstract standards) NationalStandards Content standards, Authority for data Endorsed practices and specifications NSDI Other NSDIs

27 Partnerships extend our capabilities Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata

28 Partnerships are the glue... FGDC has recognized 40+ geographic data councils across the country to establish 2-way coordination mechanisms FGDC has funded numerous agencies with “seed” funding to further existing efforts along common lines Partnerships extend local capabilities in technology, skills, logistics, and data The National Map is a partnership designed to serve Framework data themes from distributed participating organizations for multiple purposes

29 29 Regional consortia Locally formed, interdependent Inclusive, voluntary, open State, local, federal, tribal, academic, private sector Expanded from existing collaborations

30 30 Best practices Treat data as strategic, capital assets and public goods Collaborate and Coordinate Align roles, responsibilities and resources for data stewardship Organize Effective and Efficient Production and Stewardship of Data Pool and Leverage Investments

31 31 Effective regional consortia: Address Institutional Barriers Identify most effective ways to collect, maintain and distribute Data Determine business needs, inventory data assets, identify gaps, estimate investment cost Designate data stewards Develop Enterprise Plans for Data production and publication by the most appropriate partner at accuracy and scale needed by local jurisdictions

32 32 Effective regional consortia: Aid State/local participation in Geospatial One-Stop Work with OGC on cutting edge of technology (Semantic Translators and exchange schemas, Web Services) Help OMB and agencies in budget process Enable role, responsibility, resource alignment Provide, steward, and publish America’s Data Assets

33 Metadata Treated together this comprises the NSDI GEOdata Clearinghouse (catalog) Framework Standards Partnerships MetadataMetadata Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing FrameworkGEOdata

34 34 Douglas Nebert Federal Geographic Data Committee Secretariat (703) 648-4151

35 CAP Categories and the NSDI

36 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 1 Metadata Implementation

37 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 2 Metadata Outreach and Training

38 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 3 Institution Building and Coordination

39 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 4 Web Mapping

40 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 5 Web Feature Service and Framework

41 Standards Partnerships Discovery Access Services Processing MetadataMetadata FrameworkGEOdata 6 6 6 Participation in The National Map

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