2 ObjectivesAfter reading the chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able to:Identify piping systems that are used to move liquids or gases.Distinguish between sanitary sewers and storm sewers.Outline the parts of a drain waste vent system.Identify the components of a septic system.Explain the process of joining copper and plastic piping fittings.Summarize the plumbing inspection process.
3 Piping SystemsPiping systems within a community usually include a water supply system, a sanitary sewer system, storm sewer system, and fuel gas piping system.These systems are installed and maintained by utility companies.Piping systems that are installed inside buildings include water, drain-waste-vent (DWV), storm water, fuel gas, compressed air, firefighting systems, process fluid piping, toxic waste removal systems, and medical gas and vacuum piping.Most building codes require that water supply, waste water, storm water, and fuel gas piping be installed by licensed plumbers.
4 Water Supply PipingWater in the United States is commonly supplied to users by utility companies.Potable water: is water that is suitable for human consumption.Water mains: Underground pipes that branch off trunk lines to bring water near individual buildings.Water meter: Device that measures the amount of water delivered to a building (fig 23-1, page 389).Cold water pipes run directly to the fixtures.Hot water pipes extend from the water heater to each fixture that requires hot water (fig 23-2, page 389).Shutoff valves: close off sections of the system. A shutoff valve installed at the inlet of a water heater makes it possible to replace the water heater without turning off the cold water.Air chambers or shock arrestors (fig 23-5, page 392) absorb the shock created when the water flow is stopped abruptly.
5 Drain Waste Vent System The drain waste vent (DWV) system carries sewage to the sanitary sewer.The sanitary sewer takes it to a waste water treatment plant.The sludge (remaining solid) is treated. The treated sludge is disposed of by burning, burying, spreading, or being processed into fertilizer.The trap remains filled with water, preventing sewer gas from escaping into the structure.Vents prevent traps from being siphoned when waste flows through the DWV piping (fig 23-7, page 393).Floor drains are installed in concrete floors to facilitate cleaning and collect spills.Cleanouts are used to access blockages (fig 23-6, page 393).Horizontal wastewater pipes all slope downward towards the building sewer. They drop ¼” for each foot of length, allowing gravity to move the wastewater along.Septic Systems are used in areas where sanitary sewers are not available (fig 23-8, page 394). Waste is piped from the building into a large underground septic tank.A leach field, made of several rungs of perforated pipe disperses the outflow from the septic tank.
6 Storm SewersStorm sewers gather excess rain, melting snow, and groundwater from streets, yards, roofs, and parking lots.The sewers send the water into underground pipes that move the water to a nearby lake, stream, or river.This excess water is called runoff.Storm sewers empty into waterways without going to a waste water treatment plant.Foundation drains installed below the basement floor direct water around a building’s foundation to a pit called a sump, which is located in the floor of the basement. A sump pump in the sump lifts the water to a point where it can drain into a storm sewer.
7 Fuel Gas PipingMany communities also have a fuel gas piping system that delivers natural gas to buildings for heating and cooking.The gas meter is typically installed outside the building.Gas lines have cleaning drops, lines, and shutoffs.The cleaning drop collects solid particles that may be in the gas before it enters an appliance (fig 23-10, page 396).Black iron pipe and fittings are used for gas piping inside buildings.
8 Compressed Air PipingCompressed air piping systems are installed in automotive repair facilities, factories, and other buildings where air powered tools are used.A basic compressed air system is shown in fig 23-11, page 396.The pressure switch turns the compressor on and off as needed to maintain the desired pressure.The relief valve is a safety device that releases excess pressure from the tank if the pressure switch fails.A shutoff valve allows repairs to be made without relieving the pressure in the tank.Filters remove oil, water, and dirt from the air.The outgoing air pressure is adjusted with a regulator.
9 Firefighting SystemsA sprinkler system consists of a water piping system attached to sprinkler heads.The sprinkler heads are activated when the temperature exceeds a given level.A plug on the head melts, sending water through the head.At the same time, the system sounds an alarm throughout the building and the fire station.A stand pipe system is a stand alone system that consists of a water piping system connected to a reserve source of water at one end and fire hoses at the other.The hoses are located so every part of the building is protected.The reserve source of water is often a rooftop tank.
10 Process Fluid and Waste Piping Systems Process fluids are liquids used in a variety of manufacturing processes.Toxic waste is garbage and other refuse. Toxic waste cannot be treated in a waste water treatment plant. It needs to be treated on site before being piped to the sanitary sewer.Medical Gas and Vacuum Piping: Building specifications require that each piping system be color coded or otherwise clearly marked to make it easier to trace. The inside of the pipe and fittings must be sterilized after they are assembled to prevent contamination of the gases.
11 Designing Plumbing Systems The design of residential and light commercial systems is dictated by the plumbing code.Engineers design the plumbing for commercial and industrial buildings.The number, type, quality, and placement of fixtures such as sinks, lavatories, toilets, and tubs is determined by an architect.
12 Materials for Residential and Light Commercial Piping Systems Plastic and copper are the most commonly used materials for residential and light commercial piping.Hard temper copper pipe is rigid and is commonly used for water and DWV piping installations within a building. Hard temper copper pipe and fittings are soldered to make a water tight joint.Soft temper copper is somewhat flexible and is used when working around obstacles. Soft temper copper tube is joined using brass compression fittings.
13 Plumbing Installation Plumbing is installed in 3 stages: first rough, second rough and finish.Water and sewer pipes are run inside the foundation from the mains during the first rough stage.Once the building is framed the second rough stage can begin. Second rough stage includes installing tubs, shower bases, DWV, and hot and cold water piping.During the finish stage, when the building is nearly complete, sinks, lavatories, toilets, faucets, valves, appliances, and any other visible fixtures are installed.
14 Installing Plastic Pipe and Fittings PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) is commonly used for residential and light commercial DWV piping.CPVC (chlorinated PVC) is required for hot water.Most plumbers use CPVC for both hot and cold water piping to eliminate the risk of mixing the materials during installation.The size of the pipe and fittings is determined by local plumbing code.Plastic pipe is cut with plastic pipe cutters or with a saw.Burrs on the pipe end are removed with a reamer or abrasive paper.Trial assembly of pipe and fittings is done to confirm that the dimensions are correct.Apply plastic pipe cement to the end of the pipe and a thin coat to the inside of the fitting.Immediately insert the pipe fully into the fitting socket and rotate one quarter turn to distribute the cement uniformly.The cement will set almost immediately.
15 Installing Copper Pipe and Fittings Make the face to face measurement for pipe and add fitting allowances to determine the pipe length needed.Copper pipe and tube are cut with a tubing cutter.The inside of each end of the pipe is reamed to remove any burrs formed during the cutting process.A trial assembly ensures that the measurements are correct and the proper pipe length has been chosen.Before the soldering process begins, assemble all the necessary tools, materials, and equipment.Clean the pipe and socket and apply a thin coat of flux to the end of the pipe and the inside of the fitting.Push the pipe full into the fitting socket. Use a torch to heat the joint. Carefully feed the solder to the joint .Remove the flame and turn off the torch. Wipe the joint clean with a damp cloth to create a smooth, neat joint.
16 Installing Pipe Support When water is turned off and on, the pipes move.Constant movement can crack the joints, causing leaks.To prevent this problem, pipes are fastened to the structure with metal and plastic clamps to backing boards and framing.
17 Finish StageOnce the interior trim is installed, painting is completed, and floor coverings are installed, the plumber returns to the job to complete the plumbing installation.Fixtures such as faucets, showerheads, and appliances such as dishwashers, water heaters, and water softeners are installed.This work must be done very carefully to prevent damage to the finished interior.
18 Inspection and Testing Plumbing Installations Local building officials inspect plumbing systems to ensure that they conform to the plumbing code.The first rough installation is inspected and tested before water supply and building sewer pipes are covered.Inspection and testing of the second rough phase must be completed before any pipes and fittings are covered.Compressed air is used to check for leaks in water and fuel gas lines, and DWV piping. A pressure gauge indicates if the line is losing pressure.Another way to find leaks is to coat joints with a solution of soapy water. Leaks will cause bubbles to form.All problems identified by the inspector must be corrected and the inspection repeated before the piping is covered.Inspection of the work completed during the finish stage of plumbing installation is done as a part of the final inspection of the building.Again problems found must be corrected before the building is approved for ocupancy.
19 SummaryPiping systems within a community usually include a water supply system, a sanitary sewer system, storm sewer system, and fuel gas piping system.Potable water: is water that is suitable for human consumption.Water mains: Underground pipes that branch off trunk lines to bring water near individual buildings.Shutoff valves: close off sections of the system.Air chambers or shock arrestors absorb the shock created when the water flow is stopped abruptly.The drain waste vent (DWV) system carries sewage to the sanitary sewer.Vents prevent traps from being siphoned when waste flows through the DWV piping.Septic Systems are used in areas where sanitary sewers are not available.Storm sewers gather excess rain, melting snow, and groundwater from streets, yards, roofs, and parking lots.Compressed air piping systems are installed in automotive repair facilities, factories, and other buildings where air powered tools are used.Medical Gas and Vacuum Piping: The inside of the pipe and fittings must be sterilized after they are assembled to prevent contamination of the gases.The design of residential and light commercial systems is dictated by the plumbing code.Engineers design the plumbing for commercial and industrial buildings.The number, type, quality, and placement of fixtures such as sinks, lavatories, toilets, and tubs is determined by an architect.Plumbing is installed in 3 stages: first rough, second rough and finish. Water and sewer pipes are run inside the foundation from the mains during the first rough stage. Once the building is framed the second rough stage can begin. Second rough stage includes installing tubs, shower bases, DWV, and hot and cold water piping. During the finish stage, when the building is nearly complete, sinks, lavatories, toilets, faucets, valves, appliances, and any other visible fixtures are installed.Plastic and copper are the most commonly used materials for residential and light commercial piping.Local building officials inspect plumbing systems to ensure that they conform to the plumbing code.
20 Home Work 1. What are the parts of a piping system within a community? 2. What are the advantages of a shutoff valve? Give an example.3. Why are vents installed in drain waste vent (DWV) piping?