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Presentation on theme: "OXIDATION OF 9-FLUORENOL"— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives: To synthesize a ketone from a secondary alcohol using household bleach. To monitor the reaction progress using TLC analysis. To purify product using simple extraction. To analyze the purity of the product using TLC and melting point analysis. To characterize reactants and products using IR analysis.

3 Before coming to lab… Review these techniques: TLC analysis
Acid-base Extraction Drying over MgSO4 Melting Point Analysis

4 Typical oxidation vs. Green oxidation
Typical oxidation using chromium compound Greener oxidation using household bleach

5 Forming the oxidizing agent…
NaOCl + CH3CO2H  HOCl + CH3CO2Na Sodium acetic hypochlorous sodium Hypochlorite acid acid acetate Sodium hypochlorite is the main ingredient in bleach. It must first be converted to hypochlorous acid in order to oxidize the alcohol. HOCl is a source of a positive Cl, which has 2 fewer electrons than a chloride anion. Remember, oxidation is the loss of H or the addition of O.

6 From reaction of bleach
CHEMICAL EQUATION From reaction of bleach with acetic acid!

7 PROPOSED MECHANISM 1 3. Water abstracts a proton from the oxygen bearing the chlorine… 1. Bleach is reacted with acetic acid to produce hypochlorous acid. 2 3 2. Electropositive chlorine atom undergoes nucleophilic attack by oxygen of alcohol to form O-Cl bond… 4. …followed by another attack on the proton of the carbon bearing the oxygen. 4 5. Both electrons from the C-H bond form the p bond of the carbonyl, and a chlorine atom is eliminated to form the neutral product ketone. 5 Although complex, the mechanism results in the exchange of a Cl+ with a H+ on oxygen, followed by subsequent elimination of HCl to form the ketone.

8 OVERVIEW React alcohol, acetic acid, and bleach dissolved in acetone to synthesize product. Follow the reaction progress using TLC analysis. Neutralize acid and perform extraction to purify product and isolate from unreacted starting materials. Evaporate solvent to yield solid product. To reweigh to obtain product mass and calculate % yield. Perform melting point analysis to identify and determine product purity.

9 Why are the Rf values different?
The 9-fluorenol can DONATE hydrogen bonds to the silica gel on the TLC plate, resulting in a lower TLC Rf value! The 9-fluorenone can ACCEPT hydrogen bonds, but not donate to the silica gel on the TLC plate, resulting in a higher TLC Rf value!

10 Why does the color change?
More conjugated Less conjugated The more conjugated a compound is, the higher the wavelength of light it absorbs. The visible region of the spectrum is the nm wavelength range. If a compound absorbs light close to 400 nm, it will appear as a yellow color.

Add Fluorenol to 50 mL flask with stir bar. Add acetone and stir of until dissolved. Add acetic acid and bleach while stirring. Place a small cork in top of flask to reduce decomposition of bleach. Stir 10 minutes. Perform TLC experiment to check for completion. If oxidation is incomplete, add more acetic acid and bleach, react for 10 additional minutes and repeat TLC experiment. If oxidation is complete, proceed to purification steps. Complete reaction!!! RCT STD YOUR RXN PROD STD

Transfer liquid to separatory funnel. Extract product into diethyl ether 2X. Wash organic layer with 5% NaHCO3 and Saturated NaCl. Transfer organic layer to clean flask. Dry over MgSO4. Transfer liquid to preweighed 150 mL beaker w/3 boiling chips. 125 mL 150 mL

Prepare a tap water bath using your 400mL beaker. Place the water bath on a hotplate and heat the water on a setting of 3 (NO HIGHER) until just above room temp. Remove water bath from hotplate. Slowly place the 150mL beaker containing diethyl ether into the water bath to evaporate the liquid solvent. If the solution boils too rapidly, remove it immediately until it ceases to boil! 150 mL 400 mL

Place LABELED 150mL beaker in oven for 10 minutes to dry. Reweigh. Repeat if %yield is greater than 100%! Reweigh to obtain final product mass and calculate % yield. Perform melting point analysis. YOUR NAME HERE

15 Table 19.1 Theoretical yield (g) Actual yield (g) % yield
Calculate based on 9-fluorenol ONLY! Bleach is used in excess! Actual yield (g) (Beaker + product weight) – (empty beaker weight) % yield (Actual yield/theoretical yield) X 100 Melting Range (oC) Compare to lit value of 81-85oC. Product Appearance Physical state and color of product

16 Table 19.2 Atom Economy (%) Cost per Synthesis ($) Cost per gram ($/g)
Should be calculated based on 9-Fluorenol and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), NOT bleach (NaOCl) Review Experiment 13 for calculation. Cost per Synthesis ($) Remember to calculate COST PER SYNTHESIS using 9-Fluorenol, bleach, acetic acid and acetone. Cost of stock bottles on p. 167! Cost per gram ($/g) COST PER SYNTHESIS/ACTUAL YIELD

17 Table 19.3 Compound TLC Rf values Standards Sample 9-fluorenone
Rf values are UNITLESS! Rf values are 2 decimal places ONLY! If more than one TLC experiment is performed, record data from final TLC plate! 9-fluorenol

18 IR Spectroscopy Remember to concentrate on the types of bonds that indicate the CONVERSION from reactant to product! 3041 3196 1031 3060 1716

19 Table 19.4 Functional Group Base Values (cm-1) 9-fluorenol
9-fluorenone OH stretch C-O stretch C=O stretch sp2 CH stretch

20 Acetic acid is corrosive!
SAFETY CONCERNS DIETHYL ETHER IS EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE! NEVER place diethyl ether directly on a hotplate! Acetic acid is corrosive!

21 WASTE MANAGEMENT “LIQUID WASTE” container: any/all liquid waste from extraction and TLC experiment. “SOLID WASTE” container: any/all solid waste from synthesis and purification. BROKEN GLASS box: Place used TLC and melting point capillaries.

22 CLEANING Clean all glassware with soap, water, and brush if necessary.
Rinse all glassware with wash acetone before returning to lab drawer. DO NOT return any glassware to lab drawer dirty or wet.

OBJECTIVE (Must clearly state…) What compounds will be made and how How the compounds will be purified How the purity of the product will be determined CHEMICAL EQUATION Include the chemical equation from the top of page 161. TABLE OF PHYSICAL DATA (Complete the following table using a site listed on WWW Links ONLY. Wikipedia is unacceptable!) REFERENCE TO PROCEDURE (Must include…) full title including edition and author names page numbers where actual procedure can be found Compound MW (g/mol) mp(oC) bp(oC) d (g/mL) HAZARDS 9-fluorenol 182.22 X None known 9-fluorenone 180.21 81-85 Acetic acid Acetone Hypochlorous acid 52.46 Diethyl ether

DATA/CALCULATIONS Initial weight of 9-fluorenol used TLC diagram (s) with all cm measurements Initial weight of 150 mL beaker Final weight of 150 mL beaker + product Final product weight Physical state and color of product Theoretical yield calculation Percent yield calculation Atom economy calculation Cost per synthesis and cost per gram calculations Give at least one TLC Rf value calculation EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE In paragraph form, describe the procedure that you actually followed during the lab. Paragraph must be written in PAST TENSE, PASSIVE VOICE. Include any volumes or weights of chemicals used during the experiment. Include any observations or errors that occur (if any).


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