Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Imagine that you are given 25 germinating pea seeds that have been placed in boiling water for 5 minutes. You place these seeds in a respirometer."— Presentation transcript:
1 Warm-upImagine that you are given 25 germinating pea seeds that have been placed in boilingwater for 5 minutes. You place these seeds in a respirometer and collect data. Predictthe rate of oxygen consumption (i.e., cellular respiration) for these seeds, and explain your reasons.
2 Monday 10/29 Agenda Tutoring starts today! Analysis in lab packet Share inquiry findingsTake Lab QuizHomework –Photosynthesis poster and CH. 10 online assignments due tomorrowOne more week to do test corrections
3 10/30 Agenda Chloroplast structure and up to slide 25 (15 min) Photosynthesis Light ReactionCalvin CycleHomework –Study poster for open-poster quiz tomorrowPrint and bring AP Lab 4 Photosynthesis (from my website) tomorrow, don’t need to read yet
4 ■Enduring Understandings • 1B1: Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.• 2A1: All living systems require constant input of free energy.• 2A2: Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.• 2B3: Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions (e.g., mitochondria).• 4A2: The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.• 4A6: Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.
5 Standard Deviation and Standard Error for first part of lab Take each groups rates- find mean rateCalculate Standard Deviation from meanCalculate standard errorGraph rates on bar graphAdd standard error bars
11 Let’s look at model Figure 10.4 Leaf cross section Chloroplasts Vein MesophyllStomataCO2O2ChloroplastMesophyll cellOuter membraneFigure 10.4 Zooming in on the location of photosynthesis in a plant.ThylakoidIntermembrane spaceStromaGranum20 mThylakoid spaceInner membraneLet’s look at model1 m1111
16 Calvin Cycle Light Reactions [CH2O] (sugar) FigureH2OCO2LightNADPADP+ P iCalvin CycleLight ReactionsATPFigure 10.6 An overview of photosynthesis: cooperation of the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.NADPHChloroplast[CH2O] (sugar)O21616
17 While light travels as a wave, many of its properties are those of a discrete particle, the photon. Photons are not tangible objects, but they do have fixed quantities of energy and amount depends on wavelength.
18 Figure 10.10 RESULTS Chloro- phyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of light by chloroplast pigmentsCarotenoids(a)Absorption spectra400500600700Wavelength of light (nm)Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O2 release)Figure Inquiry: Which wavelengths of light are most effective in driving photosynthesis?(b) Action spectrum400500600700Aerobic bacteriaFilament of algaEngelmann’s experiment(c)4005006007001818
21 When a molecule absorbs a photon, one of that molecule’s electrons is elevated to an orbital with more potential energy.The electron moves from its ground state to an excited state.The only photons that a molecule can absorb are those whose energy matches exactly the energy difference between the ground state and excited state of this electron.Because this energy difference varies among atoms and molecules, a particular compound absorbs only photons corresponding to specific wavelengths.Thus, each pigment has a unique absorption spectrum.
22 Excited electrons are unstable. Generally, they drop to their ground state in a billionth of a second, releasing heat energy.Some pigments, including chlorophyll, release a photon of light, in a process called fluorescence, as well as heat.Fig
23 Photon (fluorescence) Figure 10.12Excited stateeHeatEnergy of electronPhoton (fluorescence)PhotonFigure Excitation of isolated chlorophyll by light.Ground stateChlorophyll molecule(a) Excitation of isolated chlorophyll molecule(b) Fluorescence2323
27 THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Figure 10.13PhotosystemSTROMAPhotonLight- harvesting complexesReaction- center complexPrimary electron acceptorChlorophyllSTROMAeThylakoid membraneThylakoid membraneFigure The structure and function of a photosystem.Transfer of energySpecial pair of chlorophyll a moleculesPigment moleculesProtein subunitsTHYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID)THYLAKOID SPACE(a) How a photosystem harvests light(b) Structure of photosystem IIEach photosystem consists of chlorophylls, accessory pigments, and proteins. The black arrows represent photons being passed like a wave to reaction center chlorophylls that actually donate their electrons.2727
28 Linear Electron Flow Figure 10.14-5 Electron transport chain Primary acceptorPrimary acceptor47Electron transport chainFdPqe2e8eeH2ONADP2 HCytochrome complexNADP reductase+ H+31/2O2NADPHPceeP7005P680Light1Light6ATPFigure How linear electron flow during the light reactions generates ATP and NADPH.Pigment moleculesPhotosystem I (PS I)Photosystem II (PS II)2828
29 Mill makes ATP NADPH ATP Photosystem II Photosystem I e e e e e Figure 10.15eeeMill makes ATPNADPHeeePhotonFigure A mechanical analogy for linear electron flow during the light reactions.eATPPhotonPhotosystem IIPhotosystem I2929
34 Electron transport chain Figure 10.17MitochondrionChloroplastMITOCHONDRION STRUCTURECHLOROPLAST STRUCTUREHDiffusionIntermembrane spaceThylakoid spaceElectron transport chainInner membraneThylakoid membraneFigure Comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts.ATP synthaseMatrixStromaADP P iATPKeyHigher [H ]HLower [H ]3434
39 FigureInput3(Entering one at a time)CO2Phase 1: Carbon fixationRubisco3PPShort-lived intermediate3PP6PRibulose bisphosphate (RuBP)3-Phosphoglycerate6ATP6 ADP3 ADPCalvin Cycle6PP3ATP1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate6 NADPHPhase 3: Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)6 NADP6 P iFigure The Calvin cycle.5PG3P6PGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)Phase 2: ReductionFor every one net G3P, requires 9 ATP and 6 NADPH from the light reaction.1PG3P (a sugar)Glucose and other organic compoundsOutput3939
40 Photosynthesis is the biosphere’s metabolic foundation In photosynthesis, the energy that enters the chloroplasts as sunlight becomes stored as chemical energy in organic compounds.- About 50% of the organic material made is consumed as fuel for cellular respiration in plant mitochondria.Rest is stored or used to build other organic compounds.
41 On a global scale, photosynthesis is the most important process to the welfare of life on Earth. Each year photosynthesis synthesizes 160 billion metric tons of carbohydrate per year.
42 10/31 Agenda Finish photosynthesis Review posters while I check them Photosynthesis quiz (20 minutes) – open posterStatistical analysis - standard deviation and standard error (standard error bars on graph) (20 min)I check lab packet from yesterday while you work in groupsIntro Lab 4 and assign cuvettesHomework –Prelab worksheet for Lab 4, skip part A, be ready to do part B tomorrow – Read Lab, part B onlyUnit Test next Tuesday 11/6 covers chapters 6-10 – BE STUDYING!!!!
43 11/1 Agenda Intro and Set up 4B (25 min) Run Lab 4B (20 min) Slides on spectrophotometerSet up blanks together. Calibrate spec and review how to use.Assign jobs – recorder, timekeeper, cuvette mixer, spec operator (all help setup)Assign cuvettes – each group does one of the four plus an inquiry tubeInquiry choices = screens, colored light, acid, base, salt, ice etc.Run Lab 4B (20 min)I check prelabs during thismake use of your wait time by setting up graphClean up and share data (10 min)Dump contents of cuvettes down the drains, then use test tube brush to clean out. Dry with paper towel. Wipe sides down with Kimwipes and put back in flask in bucket.HomeworkDo 4B Analysis – all of Analysis should be done for me to check tomorrow, including graphUnit Test next Tuesday 11/6 covers chapters 6-10you should be putting in at least a half hour of study/review per night!!!
44 When light meets matter, it may be reflected, transmitted, or absorbed. Different pigments absorb photons of different wavelengths.A leaf looks green because chlorophyll, the dominant pigment, absorbs red and blue light, while transmitting and reflecting green light.Fig. 10.6
45 SPECTROPHOTOMETER TECHNIQUE Refracting prism Chlorophyll solution Photoelectric tubeWhite lightGalvanometer605 nm is wavelength absorbed by DPIPHigh transmittance (low absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs very little green light.Slit moves to pass light of selected wavelength.Green lightFigure 10.9 Research Method: Determining an Absorption SpectrumLow transmittance (high absorption): Chlorophyll absorbs most blue light.Blue light4545
46 Each yearMake 3 copies of the next slide – put in separate powerpoint, have kids record data and to them
47 Clean up and share data with your side of the room (5 min) Dump contents of cuvettes down the drains, then use test tube brush to clean out. Dry with paper towel. Wipe sides down with Kimwipes and put back in flask in bucket.
48 11/2 Agenda Hand back quizzes Quick review prelab Analysis and post lab discussion – I check while you present (also last lab packet)Lab bench quiz for Lab 4Homework –Do conclusion only (use rubric) for Photosynthesis lab in your notebook – due MondayUnit Test next Tuesday 11/6 covers chapters 6-10Free response questions due Monday