 # Significant Digits and Scientific Notation

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Significant Digits and Scientific Notation
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Learning Goals By the end of today’s lesson, you will be able to count sig figs and express the appropriate amount of sig figs in a mathematical answer By the end of today’s lesson, you will be able to convert standard notation to scientific notation, and vice versa

Significant Digits (Sig figs)
In science, we make quantitative observations – observations that require numbers and measurements. All measurements have a certain amount of uncertainty associated with them

1) Significant Digits in Measurement
The number of significant digits in measurement is defined as all certain digits plus the first uncertain (or estimated) digit.

The measured value has three certain digits (1, 5, and 6) and one uncertain digit (5, or is it 4 or 6?). We say that the measurement has four significant digits.

Significant Figure Rules
Example Significant Figures 1. Nonzero digits are always significant 1.254 4 sig. fig. 2. Leading zeros (zeros before any nonzero digits) are NOT significant 3 sig. fig. 3. Embedded zeros are significant 305.04 5 sig. fig. 4. Zeros’ behind the decimal point are significant 124.00 5 sig fig

State the number of significant figures in each of the followings:
Measurement S.F. 967 e b f. 9.3 c g d. 5 h. 8.21

Rules for Sig Figs In Mathematical Operations
Multiplying and Dividing Numbers In a calculation involving multiplication or division, the number of significant digits in an answer should equal the least number of significant digits in any one of the numbers being multiplied or divided. Ex. 9.0 x 9.0 =8.1 x 101, while 9.0 x 9 and 9 x 9 = 8 x 101

Rules for Sig Figs In Mathematical Operations
Adding and Subtracting Numbers When quantities are being added or subtracted, the number of decimal places (not significant digits) in the answer should be the same as the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers being added or subtracted. e.g = 4.0

Sig Fig Practice #2 Calculation Calculator says: Answer 3.24 m x 7.0 m 22.68 m2 23 m2 100.0 g ÷ 23.7 cm3 g/cm3 4.22 g/cm3 0.02 cm x cm cm2 0.05 cm2 710 m ÷ s m/s 237 m/s lb x ft lb·ft 5873 lb·ft 1.030 g ÷ 2.87 mL g/mL 2.96 g/mL

Sig Fig Practice #3 Calculation Calculator says: Answer 3.24 m m 10.24 m 10.2 m 100.0 g g 76.27 g 76.3 g 0.02 cm cm 2.391 cm 2.39 cm 713.1 L L L 709.2 L lb lb lb lb 2.030 mL mL 0.16 mL 0.160 mL

Scientific Notation A method used to express really big or really small numbers. Consist of two parts: 2.34 x 103 The first part of the number indicates the number of significant figures in the value. The second part of the number DOES NOT count for significant figures. This number is ALWAYS between and 10 The 2nd part is always 10 raised to an integer exponent

How its Done 1. Place the decimal point between the first and second whole number, and write ‘x 10’ after the number. e.g. For 12345, it becomes 1.2 x 10 e.g. For , it also becomes 1.2 x 10 2. Indicate how many places you moved the decimal by writing an exponent on the number 10. a) A move to the left means a positive move. e.g. For 12345, it becomes 1.2 x 104 b) A move to the right means a negative move. e.g. For , it becomes 1.2 x 10-4

Success Criteria Answer questions on pg. 74 – 77 of Extensions Package
Answer questions on pg. 8 – 10 of Handout