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# 1 Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis: A Practical Introduction to Management Science, 3e by Cliff Ragsdale.

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1 Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis: A Practical Introduction to Management Science, 3e by Cliff Ragsdale

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-2 Introduction to Simulation Using Crystal Ball Chapter 12

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-3 Introduction to Simulation u In many spreadsheets, the value for one or more cells representing independent variables is unknown or uncertain. u As a result, there is uncertainty about the value the dependent variable will assume: Y = f(X 1, X 2, …, X k ) u Simulation can be used to analyze these types of models.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-4 Random Variables & Risk u A random variable is any variable whose value cannot be predicted or set with certainty. u Many “input cells” in spreadsheet models are actually random variables. –the future cost of raw materials –future interest rates –future number of employees in a firm –expected product demand u Decisions made on the basis of uncertain information often involve risk. u “Risk” implies the potential for loss.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-5 Why Analyze Risk? u Plugging in expected values for uncertain cells tells us nothing about the variability of the performance measure we base decisions on. u Suppose an \$1,000 investment is expected to return \$10,000 in two years. Would you invest if... –the outcomes could range from \$9,000 to \$11,000? –the outcomes could range from -\$30,000 to \$50,000? u Alternatives with the same expected value may involve different levels of risk.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-6 Methods of Risk Analysis u Best-Case/Worst-Case Analysis u What-if Analysis u Simulation

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-7 Best-Case/Worst-Case Analysis u Best case - plug in the most optimistic values for each of the uncertain cells. u Worst case - plug in the most pessimistic values for each of the uncertain cells. u This is easy to do but tells us nothing about the distribution of possible outcomes within the best- case and worst-case limits.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-8 Possible Performance Measure Distributions Within a Range worst casebest caseworst casebest caseworst casebest caseworst casebest case

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-9 What-If Analysis u Plug in different values for the uncertain cells and see what happens. u This is easy to do with spreadsheets. u Problems: –Values may be chosen in a biased way. –Hundreds or thousands of scenarios may be required to generate a representative distribution. –Does not supply the tangible evidence (facts and figures) needed to justify decisions to management.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-10 Simulation u Resembles automated what-if analysis. u Values for uncertain cells are selected in an unbiased manner. u The computer generates hundreds (or thousands) of scenarios. u We can analyze the results of these scenarios to better understand the behavior of the performance measure and make decisions using solid empirical evidence.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-11 Example: Hungry Dawg Restaurants u Hungry Dawg is a growing restaurant chain with a self-insured employee health plan. u Covered employees contribute \$125 per month to the plan, Hungry Dawg pays the rest. u The number of covered employees changes from month to month. u The number of covered employees was 18,533 last month and this is expected to increase by 2% per month. u The average claim per employee was \$250 last month and is expected to increase at a rate of 1% per month.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-12 Implementing the Model See file Fig12-2.xls

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-13 Questions About the Model u Will the number of covered employees really increase by exactly 2% each month? u Will the average health claim per employee really increase by exactly 1% each month? u How likely is it that the total company cost will be exactly \$36,125,850 in the coming year? u What is the probability that the total company cost will exceed, say, \$38,000,000?

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-14 Simulation u To properly assess the risk inherent in the model we need to use simulation. u Simulation is a 4 step process: 1) Identify the uncertain cells in the model. 2) Implement appropriate RNGs for each uncertain cell. 3) Replicate the model n times, and record the value of the bottom-line performance measure. 4) Analyze the sample values collected on the performance measure.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-15 What is Crystal Ball? u Crystal Ball is a spreadsheet add-in that simplifies spreadsheet simulation. u A 120-day trial version of Crystal Ball is on the CD- ROM accompanying this book. u It provides: –functions for generating random numbers –commands for running simulations –graphical & statistical summaries of simulation data u For more info see: http://www.decisioneering.com

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-16 Random Number Generators u A RNG is a mathematical function that randomly generates (returns) a value from a particular probability distribution. u We can implement RNGs for uncertain cells to allow us to sample from the distribution of values expected for different cells.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-17 How RNGs Work u The RAND() function returns uniformly distributed random numbers between 0.0 and 0.9999999. u Suppose we want to simulate the act of tossing a fair coin. u Let 1 represent “heads” and 2 represent “tails”. u Consider the following RNG: =IF(RAND()<0.5,1,2)

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-18 Simulating the Roll of a Die u We want the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 to occur randomly with equal probability of occurrence. u Consider the following RNG: =INT(6*RAND())+1 If 6*RAND( ) falls INT(6*RAND( ))+1 in the interval:returns the value: 0.0 to 0.9991 1.0 to 1.9992 2.0 to 2.9993 3.0 to 3.9994 4.0 to 4.9995 5.0 to 5.9996

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-19 Some of the RNGs Provided By Crystal Ball DistributionRNG Function BinomialCB.Binomial(p,n) CustomCB.Custom(range) GammaCB.Gamma(loc,shape,scale,min,max) PoissonCB.Poisson( ) Continuous UniformCB.Uniform(min,max) ExponentialCB.Exponential( ) NormalCB.Normal( ,  min,max  TriangularCB.Triang(min, most likely, max)

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-20 Examples of Discrete Probability Distributions

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-21 Examples of Continuous Probability Distributions

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-22 Discrete vs. Continuous Random Variables u A discrete random variable may assume one of a fixed set of (usually integer) values. –Example: The number of defective tires on a new car can be 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. u A continuous random variable may assume one of an infinite number of values in a specified range. –Example: The amount of gasoline in a new car can be any value between 0 and the maximum capacity of the fuel tank.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-23 Preparing the Model for Simulation u Suppose we analyzed historical data and found that: –The change in the number of covered employees each month is uniformly distributed between a 3% decrease and a 7% increase. –The average claim per employee follows a normal distribution with mean increasing by 1% per month and a standard deviation of \$3.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-24 Revising & Simulating the Model See file Fig12-8.xls

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-25 The Uncertainty of Sampling u The replications of our model represent a sample from the (infinite) population of all possible replications. u Suppose we repeated the simulation and obtained a new sample of the same size. Q: Would the statistical results be the same? A: No! u As the sample size (# of replications) increases, the sample statistics converge to the true population values. u We can also construct confidence intervals for a number of statistics...

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-26 Constructing a Confidence Interval for the True Population Mean where: Note that as n increases, the width of the confidence decreases.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-27 Constructing a Confidence Interval for the True Population Proportion where: Note that as n increases, the width of the confidence decreases.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-28 Additional Uses of Simulation u Simulation is used to describe the behavior, distribution and/or characteristics of some bottom-line performance measure when values of one or more input variables are uncertain. u Often, some input variables are under the decision makers control. u We can use simulation to assist in finding the values of the controllable variables that cause the system to operate optimally. u The following examples illustrate this process.

Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis, 3e, by Cliff Ragsdale. © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning. 12-29 Finished with Chapter 12

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