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**Types of Numbers (Data)**

Exact numbers (data) obtained from counting some conversions (e.g cm = 1 inch, exactly) Inexact most measured data Significant figures apply to inexact numbers!

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**Uncertainty in Measured Data**

Measured data is written to convey two (2) things! the magnitude of the measurement the extent of its reliability Worker #1 reports a mass of 12 g Worker #2 reports a mass of g 12 g means 12 ± 1 g g means ± g 12 g has 2 significant figures. g has 6 significant figures. g is the more certain (reliable) number. The more significant figures a measurement has, the more certain it is.

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**Measured Values: Accuracy vs. Precision**

accurate and precise precise but not accurate not accurate not precise Accuracy is how close your measured value is to the right value (can be shown by % error). Precision is how well you can reproduce your measurement (can be shown by standard deviation).

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**Recording Data to the Correct Number of Significant Figures**

The number of SFs in a measured value is equal to the number of known digits plus one uncertain digit. 22°C 22°C 21°C 21°C recorded value = 21.6°C recorded value = 21.68°C

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Making Measurements in the Lab: Recording Volumetric Data to the Correct Number of Significant Figures - Glassware with Graduations Example B Example A 1. If the glassware is marked every 10 mLs, the volume you record should be in mLs. (Example A) 2. If the glassware is marked every 1 mL, the volume you record should be in tenths of mLs. 3. If the glassware is marked every 0.1 mL, the volume you record should be in hundredths of mLs. (Example B) 0 mL 30 mL 20 mL 1 mL 10 mL 30-mL beaker: the volume you write in your lab report should be 13 mL 2 mL Buret marked in 0.1 mL: you record volume as 0.67 mL

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**Unit 1 - Temps, SFs, Dimensional Analysis**

4/15/2017 Making Measurements in the Lab: Recording Volumetric Data to the Correct Number of Significant Figures - Volumetric Glassware Look on the glassware for written indication of the precision of the volumetric flask or pipet. On this volumetric flask is written 500mL ± 0.2 mL. You would record the volume of the liquid in this flask as mL.

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**Trailing zeros MUST be recorded.**

Making Measurements in the Lab: Recording Masses to the Correct Number of Significant Figures This one is easy: record EVERY number (especially zeros) that appears on the display of the electronic balance. Trailing zeros MUST be recorded.

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**How to Count Significant Figures**

All nonzero digits are significant (1.23 has 3 SFs). All zeros between nonzero digits are significant (1.003 has 4 SFs). Leading zeros are NEVER significant (0.01 has 1 SF). Trailing zeros when a decimal point is present are significant ( has 3 SFs and 180. has 3 SFs.) Trailing zeros when no decimal point is shown are not significant. (180 has 2 SFs.)

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Scientific Notation An unambiguous way to show the number of significant figures (SFs) in your data Numbers are written as the product of a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 and a power of 10. Measurement in scientific notation #SFs mi/s m 512.1 x 101 g x 105 mi/s x 10-3 m 5.121 x 103 g 6 5 4

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Multiplication/Division: The answer contains the same number of SFs as the measurement with the fewest SFs. 25.2 x 6.1 = (but only 2 SFs are allowed) = 1.5 x 102 (correct answer) 25.2 = (on my calculator) = 7.31 (correct answer) 25.2 x 6.1 = (on my calculator) = 45 (correct answer)

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Addition/Subtraction: The answer contains the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as that of the measurement with the fewest number of decimal places. + 25.2 28.3 (correct answer) 3 SFs 0.10 (correct answer) 2 SFs Calculators do NOT know these rules. It’s up to you to apply them!

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Addition/Subtraction: Dealing with numbers with no decimal places. Convert both numbers to exponential notation with the same power of ten, and then use the decimal place rule. 286.4 x x 103 = ? x 105 x 105 x 105 286.3 x 105 (correct answer) 4 SFs

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Addition/Subtraction: Dealing with numbers with no decimal places. Write out the numbers and underline uncertain digit. 286.4 x x 103 = ? 28,640,000 (uncertain in 10,000 place) ,100 (uncertain in 100 place) 28,631,900 (take the uncertain digit farthest to the left) 28,630,000 or x 107 4 SFs

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Combined operations: Do the add/subtract first, carrying all digits, then do the multiply/divide. The only time you round is at the very end of the calculation. % difference = 100 x (your value - accepted value) accepted value This is an exact number. It does not affect SFs!

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**Maintain the Correct Number of SFs When Performing Calculations Involving Measured Data**

Find the percent difference between and an accepted value of % difference = 100 x ( ) 3.025 First, subtract from 3.015: result has 2 SFs Second, multiply by 100 and divide by (4 SFs) (in either order): Finally, round to 2 SFs: %

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**Maintaining the Correct Number of SFs When Working with Common Logarithms**

Log x = y or 10y = x The number of decimal places in y is the number of SFs in x. Example 1. Log x = 2.33 (2 decimal places) x = x = 2.1 x 102 (2 SFs) Example 2. x = (4 SFs) Log = Log = (4 decimal places) Calculators do NOT know these rules. It’s up to you to apply them!

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