Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Security. Endpoints A SQL Server endpoint is the point of entering into SQL Server. It is implemented as a database object that defines."— Presentation transcript:
Endpoints A SQL Server endpoint is the point of entering into SQL Server. It is implemented as a database object that defines the ways and means in which SQL Server may communicate over the network. An endpoint has a transport, (either HTTP or TCP). You also specify a 'payload', which is one of TSQL, Service_Broker, Database_Mirroring, or SOAP. SOAP must use HTTP, and the others must use TCP. The endpoints, other than TSQL, have a number of special-purpose properties that define the way that the service using them communicates, and operates. Endpoints can be created and managed and dropped with CREATE ENDPOINT, ALTER ENDPOINT and DROP ENDPOINT statements.
More on endpoints CREATE ENDPOINT [MyFirstUserConnection] STATE = STARTED AS TCP (LISTENER_PORT = 1680, LISTENER_IP =220.127.116.11) FOR TSQL() ; Permission to connect to the default System endpoints is implicitly granted to users when logins are created. To see the list of endpoints SELECT * FROM sys.endpoints
Endpoint categories sys.endpointsAll endpoints and all generic properties sys.database_mirroring_endpointsThe Database Mirroring endpoints sys.service_broker_endpointsThe Service Broker endpoints sys.soap_endpoints HTTP endpoints that carry a SOAP-type payload sys.endpoint_webmethodsSOAP methods defined on endpoints sys.tcp_endpointsAll TCP endpoints and properties sys.http_endpointsAll http endpoints and HTTP properties
Securables Any object to which SQL Server regulates access is called a securable You assign permissions on securables for users Securables fall under one of three scopes Server Database Schema schema objects may represent a human user's conceptual model of the knowledge captured in an enterprise database. Thus defined, there can be many schema that can be associated with one physical database.
Securables Securable scope: Server Endpoint Login Database Securable scope: Database User Role Application role Assembly Message Type Route Service Remote Service Binding Fulltext Catalog Certificate Asymmetric Key Symmetric Key Contract Schema Securable scope: Schema securables: Type XML Schema Collection Object
Principals (Database Engine) Principals are entities that can request SQL Server resources. Like other components of the SQL Server authorization model Windows-level principals Windows Domain Login Windows Local Login SQL Server-level principal SQL Server Login Database-level principals Database User Database Role Application Role
Principals ServerSQL Server login ServerSQL Server login mapped to Windows login ServerSQL Server login mapped to certificate ServerSQL Server login mapped to asymmetric key DatabaseDatabase users DatabaseDatabase users mapped to Windows login DatabaseDatabase users mapped to certificate DatabaseDatabase users mapped to asymmetric key DatabaseDatabase roles DatabaseApplication roles DatabaseDatabase users with no login Note that server logins are mapped to server securables, while database login are mapped to database objects
Schemas The first layer of grouping database object for security related management A database object is referred in four levels: Server.database.sechema.object Schemas are containers to organize objects to simplify granting permissions as opposed to the earlier notion of owner.
SQL Server & Database Objects Server logins (both Windows and Server) can have permissions to the followings Servers, Endpoints, and Logins A database object can have permissions to Table View Function Procedure Queue Type Rule Default Synonym Aggregate...
Role based Access Same ideas as Groups in Active Directory Build In Server Roles Table 9.2 page 356 Build in Database Roles Table 9.3 page 357
Build in Server Roles Sysadmin to perform any task in SQL Server, DBA only Serveradmin can set serverwide configuration options, such as how much memory SQL Server can use or how much information to send over the network in a single frame, or even shut down the server. Setupadmin can install replication and manage extended stored procedures Securityadmin manage security issues such as creating and deleting logins, reading the audit logs, and granting users permission to create databases Processadmin can end (kill) a process, good for developers to be in Dbcreator can create and make changes to databases Diskadmin manage files on disk. They perform actions such as mirroring databases and adding backup devices Bulkadmin can execute the BULK INSERT statement
built-in database roles These are built-in to each database: Db_owner Db_accessadmin Db_datareader Db_datawriter Db_ddladmin Db_securityadmin Db_backupoperator Db_denydatareader Db_denydatawriter Public
Application Roles This is a special role that must be activated using a password It is designed to force users to use a specific application to access data The activation code can be hardwired into your custom applications It does not contain any users
Ownership Chains When a user queries a view, or executes a stored procedure, SQL Server checks the owner of the underlying object If the owners are the same, only permissions on the queried object are verified If they are different, permissions on both objects are verified and honored with the lesser of the two This is called a broken ownership chain