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Solutions Mixture of a solute into a solvent Colloids Suspension Emulsion.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions Mixture of a solute into a solvent Colloids Suspension Emulsion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions Mixture of a solute into a solvent Colloids Suspension Emulsion

2 Body Solutions Intra cellular fluid (ICF)- within cells Extra cellular Fluid (ECF)- outside cells –Inter cellular = tissue fluid = interstitial fluid –Plasma = fluid portion of blood Composition of fluids change as substances move between compartments –nutrients, oxygen, ions and wastes move in both directions across capillary walls and cell membranes

3 Selective Permeability of Membrane Lipid bilayer –permeable to nonpolar, uncharged molecules -- oxygen, CO 2, steroids –permeable to water which flows through gaps that form in hydrophobic core of membrane as phospholipids move about Transmembrane proteins act as specific channels –small and medium polar & charged particles Macromolecules unable to pass through the membrane –vesicular transport

4 Gradients Across the Plasma Membrane Membrane can maintain difference in concentration of a substance inside versus outside of the membrane (concentration gradient) –more O 2 & Na+ outside of cell membrane –more CO 2 and K+ inside of cell membrane Membrane can maintain a difference in charged ions between inside & outside of membrane (electrical gradient or membrane potential) Substances always move down their concentration gradient and towards the oppositely charged area –ions have electrochemical gradients

5 Membrane Transport Substances cross barriers by a variety of processes: –Filtration, diffusion –passive transport moves substances down their concentration gradient with only their kinetic energy –mediated transport moves materials with the help of a transporter protein –active transport uses ATP to drive substances against their concentration gradients –vesicular transport move materials across membranes in small vesicles -- either by exocytosis or endocytosis

6 Filtration Movement of particles through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure Examples –filtration of nutrients from blood capillaries into tissue fluids –filtration of wastes from the blood in the kidneys Capillary wall Water Solute

7 Simple Diffusion Down gradient Up gradient

8 Diffusion Rates Factors affecting diffusion rate through a membrane –temperature -  temp.,  motion of particles –molecular weight - larger molecules move slower –steepness of concentrated gradient -  difference,  rate –membrane surface area -  area,  rate –membrane permeability -  permeability,  rate

9 Membrane Permeability Diffusion through lipid bilayer –Nonpolar, hydrophobic substances diffuse through lipid layer Diffusion through channel proteins –water and charged hydrophilic solutes diffuse through channel proteins Cells control permeability by regulating number of channel proteins

10 Osmosis Diffusion of water through a membrane Net movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration –diffusion through lipid bilayer Only occurs if membrane is permeable to water but not to certain solutes Aquaporins = channel proteins specialized for osmosis

11 Osmotic Pressure

12 Tonicity Tonicity - ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure within a cell –depends on concentration and permeability of solute Hypotonic solution –low concentration of nonpermeating solutes (high water concentration) –cells absorb water, swell and may burst (lyse) Hypertonic solution –has high concentration of nonpermeating solutes (low water concentration) –cells lose water + shrink (crenate) Isotonic solution = normal saline

13 Effects of Tonicity on RBCs swollen cell crenated cell.

14 Carrier Mediated Transport Proteins carry solutes across cell membrane Specificity –solute binds to a specific receptor site on carrier protein –differs from membrane enzymes because solutes are unchanged Types of carrier mediated transport –facilitated diffusion and active transport Transport maximum = transport rate when all carriers are occupied

15 Facilitated Diffusion

16 Active Transport Transport of solute across membrane up (against) its concentration gradient ATP energy required to change carrier Examples: –sodium-potassium pump –bring amino acids into cell –pump Ca 2+ out of cell

17 Sodium-Potassium Pump Needed because Na + and K + constantly leak through membrane –half of daily calories utilized for pump One ATP utilized to exchange three Na + pushed out for two K + brought in to cell

18 Functions of Na + -K + Pump Regulation of cell volume –“fixed anions” attract cations causing osmosis –cell swelling stimulates the Na + - K + pump to  ion concentration,  osmolarity and cell swelling Heat production (thyroid hormone increase # of pumps; heat a by-product) Maintenance of a membrane potential in all cells –pump keeps inside negative, outside positive Secondary active transport (No ATP used) –steep concentration gradient of Na + and K + maintained across the cell membrane –carriers move Na + with 2 nd solute easily into cell

19 Secondary Active Transport

20 Membrane Carriers

21 Digitalis Slows the sodium pump, which lets more Na+ accumulate in the heart muscle cells. Less Na+ concentration gradient across the membrane Na+/Ca+2 antiporters slow down so more Ca+2 remains inside the cardiac cells Strengthening the force of contraction Balance between concentration of Na+ and Ca+2 in cytosol & extracellular fluid is important

22 Vesicular Transport

23 Phagocytosis or “Cell-Eating” Keeps tissues free of debris and infectious microorganisms.

24 Pinocytosis or “Cell-Drinking” Taking in droplets of ECF –occurs in all human cells Membrane caves in, then pinches off into the cytoplasm as pinocytotic vesicle

25 Transcytosis Transport of a substance across a cell Receptor mediated endocytosis moves it into cell and exocytosis moves it out the other side –insulin

26 Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

27 Selective endocytosis Receptor specificity Clathrin-coated vesicle in cytoplasm –uptake of LDL from bloodstream Familial Hypercholesterolemia

28 Exocytosis Secreting material or replacement of plasma membrane

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