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© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 19 Opposition to Nazism Nazi Germany
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 19 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 19 What sorts of people opposed Hitler. The different reasons they had for doing so. The methods they adopted. The effectiveness of their opposition. Why so few people chose to oppose Hitler. Do people have a duty to oppose tyrannical governments? What we will learn in this presentation: Learning objectives
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 3 of 19 In what circumstances, if any, do you think people are justified in breaking the law? “If there is nothing you are willing to die for, your life is worthless.” Do you agree with this statement? Introductory discussion points
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 4 of 19 'Resistance by necessity' Opposition from the Jews
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 5 of 19 Organized armed resistance was the most forceful form of Jewish opposition to the Nazis. Occupied countries: Jewish authorities in Palestine sent parachutists into Hungary to aid Jews. In France, various elements of the Jewish underground consolidated to form the Armee Juive (Jewish Army). Camps: At Treblinka, prisoners with stolen weapons attacked the SS staff. Most of the rebels were shot, though several dozen prisoners escaped. At Auschwitz, four Jewish women successfully blew up the gas ovens – all four were executed. Ghettos: The inhabitants of the Warsaw ghetto rose up in rebellion when news leaked out that the Nazis planned to deport them all to the Treblinka extermination camp. Jewish resistance
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 6 of 19 NumbersHeavy machine guns Sub-machine guns Rifles Germans2,100131351358 Jews1,2000217 As German forces entered the Warsaw ghetto in April 1943 to destroy it, the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) pelted German tanks with hand grenades. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 7 of 19 'Resistance due to disillusionment' Opposition from Young People
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 8 of 19 Some young people chose to oppose the Nazis, even though they (unlike the Jews) could have lived a quiet life in the Third Reich. The Swing movement met to dance and listen to forbidden jazz music, and welcomed Jews in their clubs. The Edelweiss Pirates, or Navajos, helped deserters and refugees during the war – 12 of their leaders were hanged in Cologne in 1944 for attacking the Gestapo. On the next slide you can read the 'Song of the Navajos'. The Swing movement and the Navajos
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 9 of 19 The Song of the Navajos
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 10 of 19 The White Rose
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 11 of 19 'Resistance on principle' Religious Opposition
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 12 of 19 Religious opposition – Protestants
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 13 of 19 The Catholic Church was even less willing to face up to Hitler. This was partly because the Nazis had reached a deal with the Pope (the Concordat). One exception was Cardinal Galen, who delivered a powerful sermon against the Nazi euthanasia programme in 1941. Religious opposition – Catholics
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 14 of 19 The sermon sent a shockwave through the Nazi leadership all the way up to Hitler. He ordered the arrest of three parish priests who had distributed Cardinal Galen’s sermon, and then had them beheaded. However, Hitler left Galen unharmed. Why do you think that the Nazis chose not to execute Galen? Hitler then officially suspended the euthanasia programme which had accounted for nearly a hundred thousand deaths by this time. It continued in secret – drugs and starvation were now used instead of mass gassings. Was Catholic resistance more significant than that of the Protestants? Cardinal Galen
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 15 of 19 Opposition from the Military
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 16 of 19 By the summer of 1944, the German army was on the retreat. A group of army generals decided to kill Hitler and then make peace. On 20 July 1944, Colonel von Stauffenberg, leader of the plotters, attended a meeting at Hitler’s headquarters. Present were 24 officers and Hitler himself. Not long after the start of the meeting, Stauffenberg made his excuses and left, leaving behind a briefcase containing a bomb. Minutes later, the bomb exploded. The bomb plot
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 17 of 19 Stauffenberg flew to Berlin and announced that Hitler was dead, and that the army generals were taking over. He had spoken too soon. Moments before the bomb went off, the briefcase had been moved out of Hitler’s way – so although four men were killed in the conference room, Hitler was not one of them. Within hours, the plotters had been rounded up by the Gestapo. They were given a short trial, and then shot. Photograph courtesy of the Imperial War Museum, London. The bomb plot
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 18 of 19 Why was there so little opposition?
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 19 of 19 Plenary
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© Boardworks Ltd of 17 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Attitudes towards War These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.
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