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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO THE PLANT KINGDOM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Plant Characteristics
Multicellular Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Chlorophylls in thylakoid membranes Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) copyright cmassengale

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Taxonomy Plants are divided into two groups Based on the presence or absence of an internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Called Vascular System Vascular Bundles copyright cmassengale

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Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Sap is the fluid carried inside the phloem copyright cmassengale

5 Nonvascular Plants Do not have vascular tissue for support or conduction of materials Called Bryophytes Require a constantly moist environment Sporophyte stage Gametophyte Stage Moss Gametophytes & Sporophytes copyright cmassengale

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Nonvascular Plants Plants can’t grow as tall Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets copyright cmassengale

7 Divisions of Nonvascular Plants
Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) Liverworts Hornworts copyright cmassengale

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Vascular Plants Also called Tracheophytes Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed-bearing vascular plants Club Moss copyright cmassengale

9 Seedless Vascular Plants
Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Horsetails Whisk ferns Club Moss

10 Seed-Producing Vascular Plants
Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Angiosperms have flowers that produce fruits to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale

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Gymnosperms Coniferophyta are known as conifers Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Cycadophyta – cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Cycad Ginkgo copyright cmassengale

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Gymnosperms Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood copyright cmassengale

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Angiosperms Flowering plants Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Ovary is within a flower Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) copyright cmassengale

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Angiosperms Division Anthophyta Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Dicots have two seed cotyledons copyright cmassengale

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Monocots Parallel veins in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

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Dicots Web veins in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

17 Why We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce lumber for building Provide homes and food for many organisms Prevent erosion Used for food copyright cmassengale

18 More Reasons We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce wood pulp for paper products Source of many medicines Ornamental and shade for yards Fibers such as cotton for fabric Dyes


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