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Today is March 14, AP Bio Exam May 14

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1 Today is March 14, AP Bio Exam May 14
Today is March 14, AP Bio Exam May 14! Get a book Make and fill in chart Moss Fern Gymnosperm Angiosperm Seeds? Vascular? Mostly in what phase (life cycle)?

2 Friday’s Test 47 Multiple Choice
2 FRQs—One on plants, one on old material You will hand me FRQs to exit the room. If you have blanks, you are staying in REVIEW MONDAY: Cells + Chemistry (2 sets of evidence)


4 Cross section of a stem: axis of a plant
Cross section of a stem: axis of a plant. Epidermis: outer layer of the stem. Phloem vessels: tubes that carry glucose Cambium: new parts of the stem. Cork: protective covering of the stem. Pith: central part of the stem. Xylem vessels: woody part of the stem, carries water

5 Cross section of a root: axis of the plant which grows in the opposite direction from the stem, maintain the plant in place and absorbs nutrients. Piliferous stratum: set of cells on the outer layer that carry the root hairs. Cortex: part of the root that protects the pith. Xylem: woody parts of the root, carries water Phloem: vessels through which glucose circulates. Pith: central part of the root. Phellogen: part of the root that produces cork.

6 Apoplastic Movement Movement of water and solutes through the cell walls and the intercellular spaces No crossing of the plasma membrane More rapid - less resistance to the flow of water

7 Translocation, movement of glucose

8 Water Potential Read water potential for dummies


10 C3 vs C4 animation

11 http://highered. mcgraw-hill


13 Ecology Quiz

14 Draw and explain the lifecycle of a plant

15 Dispatch What did you learn from transpiration lab?
Take our calendar and list 3 upcoming deadlines Monday’s review is on____________ Read alternation of generation and take notes

16 Transpiration Water wants to move from high to low water potential

17 Transpiration on a cellular level

18 Moss

19 Angiosperm

20 Fern

21 Gymnosperm

22 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom
copyright cmassengale

23 Aquatic to Terrestrial Life
Early Ancestors Aquatic to Terrestrial Life copyright cmassengale

24 copyright cmassengale
Aquatic Ancestor Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor Group of green algae Called Charyophyceans Chara copyright cmassengale

25 Algae & Land Plant Similarities
Both contain chlorophylls a and b Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids Store starch in plastids Cellulose in cell walls Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle copyright cmassengale

26 copyright cmassengale
Aquatic Habitat Terrestrial Habitat copyright cmassengale

27 Living in Aquatic Environments
Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out Sperm swims to egg Water supports plant Plants stay in upper surface near light Absorb nutrients from the H2O copyright cmassengale

28 Plant Adaptations to Land
Solutions: Roots absorb H2O & minerals Lignin & cellulose in cell walls Vascular Transport System Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells Pollen containing sperm Problems: Need minerals Gravity Increase in Height for Light Adaptations for Drier environment Reproduction copyright cmassengale

29 How Are Plants All Alike?
copyright cmassengale

30 Plant Characteristics
Multicellular Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Chlorophylls a and b in thylakoid membranes Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) copyright cmassengale

31 copyright cmassengale
Plant Reproduction Alternation of generations life cycle Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage Produce multicellular embryo protected inside multicellular haploid (gametophyte egg sac) tissue copyright cmassengale

32 copyright cmassengale
Plant Reproduction Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage produces haploid spores by meiosis Haploid spores undergo mitosis to produce gametophyte stage Gametophyte makes gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis Zygote (2n) produces the new sporophyte copyright cmassengale

33 Alternation of Generations
Gametophyte 2n Sporophyte 2n gametophyte 1n pollen 2n seed with plant embryo Ovary with 1n ovules (eggs) Sporophyte copyright cmassengale

34 Moss Life Cycle http://www. sumanasinc
Angiosperm Life Cycle

35 copyright cmassengale
Plant Divisions copyright cmassengale

36 copyright cmassengale
Taxonomy Plants are divided into two groups Based on the presence or absence of an internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Called Vascular System Vascular Bundles copyright cmassengale

37 copyright cmassengale
Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Sap is the fluid carried inside the xylem or phloem copyright cmassengale

38 Nonvascular Plants Do not have vascular tissue for support or conduction of materials Called Bryophytes Require a constantly moist environment Sporophyte stage Gametophyte Stage Moss Gametophytes & Sporophytes copyright cmassengale

39 copyright cmassengale
Nonvascular Plants Plants can’t grow as tall Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets copyright cmassengale

40 copyright cmassengale
Nonvascular Plants Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) Liverworts Hornworts copyright cmassengale

41 Main Parts of Vascular Plants
Shoots -Found above ground -Have leaves attached - Photosynthetic part of plant Roots -Found below ground -Absorb water & minerals -Anchor the plant copyright cmassengale

42 copyright cmassengale
Vascular Plants Also called Tracheophytes Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed-bearing vascular plants Club Moss copyright cmassengale

43 Seedless Vascular Plants
Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Whisk ferns copyright cmassengale Horsetails

44 Seed-Producing Vascular Plants
Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Angiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale

45 copyright cmassengale
Gymnosperms Coniferophyta are known as conifers Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Cycadophyta – cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Cycad Ginkgo copyright cmassengale

46 copyright cmassengale
Gymnosperms Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood copyright cmassengale

47 copyright cmassengale
Angiosperms Flowering plants Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Ovary is within a flower Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) copyright cmassengale

48 copyright cmassengale
Angiosperms Division Anthophyta Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Dicots have two seed cotyledons copyright cmassengale

49 copyright cmassengale
Monocots Parallel venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

50 copyright cmassengale
Dicots Net venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

51 copyright cmassengale
Plant Uses copyright cmassengale

52 Why We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce lumber for building Provide homes and food for many organisms Prevent erosion Used for food copyright cmassengale

53 More Reasons We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce wood pulp for paper products Source of many medicines Ornamental and shade for yards Fibers such as cotton for fabric Dyes copyright cmassengale

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