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B. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency.

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Presentation on theme: "B. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency."— Presentation transcript:

1 b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus. c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta. e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. SSUSH 9

2 Bell Ringer  Examine the Photo: 1. Who is the woman? 2. Who are the two men? 3. What is ironic about the picture?

3 Essential Question 6  What was the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation? Example: [EQ Goes Here] I believe that the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation was…blah blah, blah. I believe this because…blah blah blah, blah blah [in other words, the evidence for your belief] Simply read the Emancipation Proclamation and/or the commentary handout and formulate your own opinion The more serious you take this the better your answer will be

4 Essential Question - 5  What efforts did President Lincoln make to preserve the Union during the Civil War? Examine:  Second Inaugural Address  Gettysburg Speech  Use of emergency powers such as the suspension of habeas corpus  Emancipation Proclamation [EQ Goes Here] Effort Description 2 nd Inaugural Address Gettysburg Speech Suspension of Habeas Corpus Emancipation Proclamation On the Back of Page 5 Evaluate the character of Abraham Lincoln Saint or Sinner?

5 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address  Abraham Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865  During his inauguration at the start of his second term as President of the United States  Lincoln did not speak of happiness, but of sadness Some see this speech as a defense of his pragmatic approach to Reconstruction, in which he sought to avoid harsh treatment of the defeated South by reminding his listeners of how wrong both sides had been in imagining what lay before them when the war began four years earlier.  Lincoln balanced that rejection of triumphalism, however, with a recognition of the unmistakable evil of slavery, which he described in the most concrete terms possible  Unbeknownst to him, John Wilkes Booth, David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Paine, John Surratt and Edmund Spangler, a few of the conspirators involved with his assassination were present in the crowd at the inauguration.

6 Lincoln suspends habeas corpus (1862)  The writs of habeas corpus are a person’s right not to be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial  Lincoln suspended these common rights in an effort to stop anyone from supporting the Confederate cause and to prevent those who encouraged others to resist the draft (conscription)  The suspension of habeas corpus was the result of draft riots in many northern cities

7 Emancipation Proclamation  Lincoln, amid growing war casualties, used the Union victory at Antietam to issue the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862.  The Proclamation: freed only those slaves in the states in rebellion did not free the slaves in the border states gave the Union Army another reason to fight: the liberation of slaves Which slave states were unaffected by the Proclamation? Why did Lincoln plan this?

8 Gettysburg Address  In November 1863, Lincoln gave his now famous speech at Gettysburg to dedicate the Gettysburg National Cemetery  Lincoln used the speech to redefine the purpose of fighting the war: the reunification of the Union  es/gettysburgaddress.htm es/gettysburgaddress.htm

9 Lincoln: Saint or Sinner?  After all is said and done – how do you feel about Lincoln?  Has your opinion of Lincoln changed in any way?  Do you feel like you’ve been duped? Bamboozled? Hoodwinked?

10 Essential Question - 7 1. Who were Ulysses Grant, Robert Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, William Sherman, and Jefferson Davis? What roles did each play in the Civil War? Grant Lee Jackson Sherman Davis Essential Q Goes Here

11 The Civil War (1861-1865)  The Civil War starts: With increased tension between the North and the South (Slavery and sectionalism issues) South Carolina secedes from the Union in December 1860 after Lincoln is elected President By June 1861, ten Southern states had seceded Many of the early battles were Union losses, or fought to a draw

12 Jefferson Davis  Was the first and only President of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865)  Appointed Robert E. Lee commander of Army of Northern Virginia in 1862  Captured in Georgia, in 1865

13 Ulysses Grant (Union-North)  Had early success fighting in the west (TN, LA, MS)  Captured Vicksburg, MS giving the Union control of the Mississippi River  Lincoln promoted him to commander of the entire Union Army in 1864  Fights Lee in a series of battles ending in Lee’s surrender at Appomattox in 1865

14 Robert E. Lee (Confederacy-South) - Resigned from the US Army to fight for the Confederacy: was against slavery but didn’t want to fight against the South - Named commander of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862 - Lee invades Maryland (1862) and loses a major battle at Antietam, forcing him to retreat back into Virginia - After two major victories against the Union, Lee again decided to invade the North, this time into Gettysburg (PA) where he lost a 3 day battle to the Union: after the loss, Confederate forces had to remain on the defensive for the rest of the war

15 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederacy-South)  Played a major role in defeating the Union Army at the first major battle of the war (Bull Run-1861), the loss at Bull Run made the Union realize that it would be a prolonged war  Fought with Lee at Antietam  Helped defeat the Union Army at Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville (1863)  Was accidently shot at night by his own men at Chancellorsville and died 8 days later

16 William Sherman (Union-North)  Fought with Grant at Vicksburg  Named Union Commander of the West (1864)  Attacked and destroyed the city of Atlanta, a major southern railroad center, in the fall of 1864  The victory helped Lincoln secure the political support that allowed him to be reelected in 1864

17 d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta.

18  What were the importance / significance of each of the following Civil War battles: Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta? Example: [EQ Goes Here] Sumter Antietam Vicksburg Gettysburg Atlanta The Name of the Battle goes here The importance of the Battle goes here

19 Major Battles of the Civil War

20 Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC  Fort Sumter, a Union fort in Charleston Harbor, is surrounded after South Carolina secedes in December 1860  Lincoln will not evacuate or send the Navy to defend, but sends supplies to the fort, or as he said, “food for hungry men”.  The Union refused to surrender the fort and Jefferson Davis orders Southern troops to bombard it.  After 33 hours the garrison surrendered, starting the Civil War

21 Antietam: September 1862  Lee marched into Maryland hoping that a Southern victory would convince the North to settle for peace, gain support from the British, and find food for his men  The two armies fought at Antietam, which became the bloodiest one- day battle in American history (6,000 dead, 16,000 wounded)  Lee is forced to retreat back into Virginia  The Union victory led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation What might have happened if Lee defeated the Union Army at Antietam?

22 Gettysburg (VA): July 1 st - 3 rd 1863  Lee again decided to invade the North in hopes that the North would settle for peace On July 2 nd, Lee ordered an attack, known as “Pickett’s Charge” on the Union forces The South loses 7,000 men in under 30 minutes of fighting Which state did Lee invade the first time he attacked the North? What were the results?

23 Gettysburg (VA): July 1 st -3 rd 1863  Lee retreated from the battlefield on July 4 th, having lost 1/3 of his entire fighting force  The loss forces the South to fight a defensive war and strengthened the will of the North to continue the fight Why do you think Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the war?

24 Vicksburg (MS) July 4 th 1863  By 1863, Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River  Grant launched a siege of the city in May 1863 cutting off it’s food supply and placing it under constant bombardment  The Confederate forces surrender July 4 th 1863, which gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in half Which Confederate states were isolated from the rest of the South with the fall of Vicksburg?

25 Battle for Atlanta: August 1864  Sherman marched his army south towards Atlanta, a major railroad center in the South  He ordered all civilians out of the city and then began to burn and destroy everything of military value  Atlanta was the beginning of Sherman’s “March to the Sea” and helped the Republican Party gain political strength

26 Essential Question 11  How did the economic disparity between the North and South affect the growing tensions between the two?  How did this disparity affect the war? Include an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output. Interpret the information on the following slide to answer EQ 11

27 Northern and Southern Resources

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