Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES"— Presentation transcript:


2 Nature of Waves A disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another is called a wave. The source of any wave is a vibration. A substance or region through which a wave is transmitted is called a medium. Mechanical waves, such as sound waves, require a medium to travel.

3 Transverse Waves An electromagnetic wave consists of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. An electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave that transfers electrical and magnetic energy. Transverse waves do NOT require a medium to travel Unlike sound waves, electromagnetic waves can travel in a vacuum, which means they can travel through space. Speed of electromagnetic waves – 300,000,000 meters/second Takes light 8 minutes to travel from the sun to earth {150 million miles} at this speed.

4 In order to create the vibrating electric and magnetic fields that are characteristic of an electromagnetic wave, electrons must move.

5 How are electromagnetic waves created?
Electrons are arranged in energy levels. electrons with the lowest energy are found closest to the nucleus electrons with higher energy are found farther away from the nucleus If an electron moves closer to the nucleus, energy is released & an electric and magnetic field is created. These fields form electromagnetic waves.

6 Types of Electromagnetic Waves
Radio waves Microwaves (a type of radio wave) Infrared light Visible light – red, orange, yellow, green, blue, & violet Ultraviolet light (UV) X-rays Gamma rays

7 Electromagnetic Spectrum

8 Electromagnetic Spectrum

9 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radio Waves Have the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies of all the electromagnetic waves. Used in radios & TVs A radio picks up radio waves through an antenna and converts it to sound waves. Each radio station in an area broadcasts at a different frequency. # on radio dial tells frequency. MRI (MAGNETIC RESONACE IMAGING) Uses short wave radio waves with a magnet to create an image

10 MRI Images

11 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Microwaves Microwaves – have the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequency of the radio waves. Used in microwave ovens – Microwaves are absorbed by water, fats and sugars. When they are absorbed they are converted directly into atomic motion = heat. Metal reflects microwaves, which is why metal pans do not work well in a microwave oven.

12 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Microwaves Other uses – Used by cell phones and pagers. RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) Used to find the speed of an object by sending out radio waves and measuring the time it takes them to return

13 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Rays Infrared = below red Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than microwaves. You can feel the longest ones as warmth on your skin Warm objects give off more heat energy than cool objects.

14 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Rays Thermogram –a picture that shows regions of different temperatures in the body. Temperatures are calculated by the amount of infrared radiation given off. Therefore people give off infrared rays. Other uses – cooking - special lamps that emit thermal infrared waves are often used in fast food restaurants T.V. remote controls

15 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Rays

16 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Visible Light Visible spectrum – these are e/m waves we can see When light enters a new medium it bends (refracts). Each wavelength bends a different amount allowing white light to separate into it’s various colors – Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, & Violet Longest wavelength = red light Shortest wavelength = violet (purple) light

17 LIGHT: What is it? Atoms -
electrons release light when falling down to lower energy levels photons - packets of energy released when the electrons fall Light = a stream of photons, or packets of energy, released when electrons move from higher energy levels to lower energy levels

18 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Ultraviolet Light Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than visible light Carry more energy than visible light Use in hospitals to kill bacteria cells – sterilization of equipment Causes your skin to produce vitamin D – good for teeth & bones (helps with the absorption of calcium) Too much can cause skin cancer Use sun block to protect against (UV rays)

19 Electromagnetic Spectrum
X-Rays Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than UV-rays Carry a great amount of energy Can penetrate most matter Bones and teeth absorb x-rays. (The light part of an x-ray image indicates a place where the x-ray was absorbed) Too much exposure can cause cancer lead vest at dentist protects organs from unnecessary exposure Used by engineers to check for tiny cracks in structures The rays pass through the cracks and the cracks appear dark on film.


21 Electromagnetic Spectrum
Gamma Rays Gamma rays have the smallest wavelengths and the most energy of any other wave in the e/m spectrum. They are generated by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions. They are also produced by such violent events as supernova explosions (the way massive stars die). Gamma-rays are used to kill cancerous cells Gamma-rays travel to us from outer space & are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere.

22 SUMMARY All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed – 300,000,000 m/s in a vacuum They all have different wavelengths and different frequencies. Longer wavelength  lowest frequency Shorter wavelength  highest frequency The higher the frequency the higher the energy.


Similar presentations

Ads by Google