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Genetic Damage and Mutation

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Damage and Mutation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Damage and Mutation

2 Cancer cells differ from normal cells
Cancer results from the accumulation of genetic damage to cells across time*** Cancer cells differ from normal cells Their shape and appearance is different.**** There are changes in their dependence on growth factors There is a multitude of biochemical differences


4 Cancer is a multi-step process, which explains:
Increased incidence of cancer with age*** Development of cancer can be decades after exposure to carcinogens ***** Increased incidence of cancer among people with inherited dispositions

5 Knowledge to improve personal and public health
Good choices can reduce an individual’s risk of developing cancer Levels of cancer prevention: Individual behavior changes Health care providers – counseling and screening National level – government regulations to minimize public exposure to known carcinogens International level – actions of developed countries bring cancer treatment worldwide

6 Risk factors for skin cancer
Excessive exposure to UV (ultraviolet) radiation Fair complexion Occupational exposure to substances Coal tar Creosote Arsenic compounds Radium

7 Good choices can improve an individual’s chance of survival if he/she develops cancer
There is improved detection There is improved treatment Ethical values sometimes conflict in public policy debates about strategies for reducing the risk of cancer

8 Ethics is a process of rational inquiry
Ethics requires a solid foundation of information and careful interpretation of that information There are often competing, well-reasoned answers to what is right and wrong, or good or bad

9 Questions What is the relationship between exposure to carcinogens and the development of cancer? Answer: Cancer can develop decades after exposure to carcinogens. What is actually happening in a person’s lungs when the person develops cancer? Answer: the cancer cells multiply rapidly, taking up space and nutrients from the normal cells.

10 When a physician looks at cells under the microscope, how can she tell if the cells are cancer cells? Answer: By the appearance changes If children wear protective headwear and clothing when outside during peak hours of UV exposure, what would be the result? Answer: Most skin cancers would be prevented.

11 Some people inherit a disposition to develop cancer
Some people inherit a disposition to develop cancer. What does that mean? Answer: They are more likely to develop cancer than the general population. The best example of a government regulation that would minimize exposure to carcinogens would be: Answer: Banning cigarette smoking in public places.

12 In normal cell growth, what regulates the cell growth cycle?
Answer: Genes Cancer results from what type of damage to cells over time? Answer: Genetic The development of cancer most likely occurs due to: Answer: multiple exposures over time.

13 How do healthcare providers participate in cancer prevention?
Answer: they routinely perform cancer screening. Why is overexposure to the sun a risk factor in the development of skin cancer? Answer: ultraviolet radiation damages skin cells. Coal tar and radium are both examples of: Answer: known carcinogens.

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