2 Cancer cells differ from normal cells Cancer results from the accumulation of genetic damage to cells across time***Cancer cells differ from normal cellsTheir shape and appearance is different.****There are changes in their dependence on growth factorsThere is a multitude of biochemical differences
4 Cancer is a multi-step process, which explains: Increased incidence of cancer with age***Development of cancer can be decades after exposure to carcinogens *****Increased incidence of cancer among people with inherited dispositions
5 Knowledge to improve personal and public health Good choices can reduce an individual’s risk of developing cancerLevels of cancer prevention:Individual behavior changesHealth care providers – counseling and screeningNational level – government regulations to minimize public exposure to known carcinogensInternational level – actions of developed countries bring cancer treatment worldwide
6 Risk factors for skin cancer Excessive exposure to UV (ultraviolet) radiationFair complexionOccupational exposure to substancesCoal tarCreosoteArsenic compoundsRadium
7 Good choices can improve an individual’s chance of survival if he/she develops cancer There is improved detectionThere is improved treatmentEthical values sometimes conflict in public policy debates about strategies for reducing the risk of cancer
8 Ethics is a process of rational inquiry Ethics requires a solid foundation of information and careful interpretation of that informationThere are often competing, well-reasoned answers to what is right and wrong, or good or bad
9 QuestionsWhat is the relationship between exposure to carcinogens and the development of cancer?Answer: Cancer can develop decades after exposure to carcinogens.What is actually happening in a person’s lungs when the person develops cancer?Answer: the cancer cells multiply rapidly, taking up space and nutrients from the normal cells.
10 When a physician looks at cells under the microscope, how can she tell if the cells are cancer cells?Answer: By the appearance changesIf children wear protective headwear and clothing when outside during peak hours of UV exposure, what would be the result?Answer: Most skin cancers would be prevented.
11 Some people inherit a disposition to develop cancer Some people inherit a disposition to develop cancer. What does that mean?Answer: They are more likely to develop cancer than the general population.The best example of a government regulation that would minimize exposure to carcinogens would be:Answer: Banning cigarette smoking in public places.
12 In normal cell growth, what regulates the cell growth cycle? Answer: GenesCancer results from what type of damage to cells over time?Answer: GeneticThe development of cancer most likely occurs due to:Answer: multiple exposures over time.
13 How do healthcare providers participate in cancer prevention? Answer: they routinely perform cancer screening.Why is overexposure to the sun a risk factor in the development of skin cancer?Answer: ultraviolet radiation damages skin cells.Coal tar and radium are both examples of:Answer: known carcinogens.