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Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20041 LORIA – Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications Jean-Pierre.

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Presentation on theme: "Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20041 LORIA – Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications Jean-Pierre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20041 LORIA – Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications Jean-Pierre Thomesse Professeur INPL real-time networks: the fieldbus technology

2 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20042 Whos who Ethernet WorldFIP TTP Profibus-PA IEC 61158 SercosBacNET Seriplex Unitelway P-NET CSMA-DCR Batibus EiBUS Interbus DeviceNet SDS ControlNet CiA CANOpen Profibus-FMS FieldBus Foundation Profibus-DP DWF Modbus TTP-A TTP-C EN 50170 EN 50254 TCP-IP MMS SNMP M-PCCN TASE2 CASM FDDI ISO 8802.3 ISO 8802.4 ISO 8802.5 Sinec FIPIO FIPWay ControlFIP WDPF JBUS ASI PLAN Mini-MAPLON EHS CANUCA ICCP CSMA-CA CSMA-BA CSMA-CD Hart Digital Hart Bitbus MAP TOP F8000 ARINC Profisafe UIC 556 IEC 6375CIP M-Bus WITBUS Sycoway GENIUS VAN OPTOBUS EuridisJ1850 LocaFIP SwiftNet Bluetooth UWB WiF i IEEE 802.11 FireWire HSE ISIbus Switched Ethernet TOP LIN KSU P1118 MIL 1553B Sensoplex IEC 955 Proway IEEE 1394 IEC 61804 IEC 61784 IEC 61 499 EN 50 325 IEC 870-5 IEC 61 375-1 ISO 11519 IEC 62026 EN 50 295 FlexRay Anubis FTT-CAN TT-CAN

3 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20043 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs and MACs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

4 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20044 before networks SA Set Point operator SA Set Point SA SA operator

5 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20045 before networks SA Set Point operators SA Set Point SA SA optimisation

6 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20046 first networks SA SA SA SA optimization monitoring, control MODBUS WDPF and in France FACTOR GIXINet, LAC

7 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20047 context - possibilities technology capabilities –OSI - ISO model (reliability, QoS…) –LAN development –MACs war –microelectronics development

8 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20048 context functional end-users needs –needs for standardization –MAP - TOP projects –CIM concept and architectures –wiring simplification –instrumentation dedicated O.S.

9 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 20049 CIM architecture instrumentation machine cell plant Inc enterprise management factory control cell control machine instrumentation TOP MAP miniMAP fieldbus

10 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200410 first networks SA SASASA optimization monitoring, control FIELDBUS

11 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200411 fieldbus connection of field devices and of field controllers –sensors, actuators, drives controllers, PLCs… real time communication system based on –a layered structure –services and various qualities of service system considerations –simplification of wiring –spinal column of distributed real time systems fieldbuses proliferation –lack of standardization –multiple various domains of application

12 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200412 application domains continuous process control discrete part manufacturing building automation car, trains… utilities networks control transportation systems (railways, highways…)

13 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200413 the birth of fieldbus 1982 FIP (Factory Instrumentation Protocol) objectives: –a network for the connection of sensors and actuators –a network for the development of the smart instrumentation –a network for the development of distributed automation –a standard: the CP/M of the instrumentation !

14 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200414 the birth of fieldbus 1984 FIP white book –improvement of distributed applications –independence of locations (addresses) –same view of the system by all the stations –coherence of parallel actions –simultaneity of actions, of events –priority to the identified and periodic traffic

15 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200415 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs and MACs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

16 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200416 periodic traffic FEDCBAFEDCBA A DCADCA DCADCA DCADCA A EBAEBA FEDCBAFEDCBA A DCADCA DCADCA DCADCA A EBAEBA

17 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200417 fieldbus messages application exchanges messagesidentified data real time periodic real time periodic aperiodic not real time on event (management) not real time on event

18 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200418 IEC - ISA fieldbus requirements (1985-1987) –two networks H1 and H2 (HSE?) –environment constraints (EMC, IS, PD…) –real time : periodic traffic –not real time : random traffic without constraints –time constraints maximum response time average frequency and later timeliness attributes time coherence space-time consistency

19 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200419 fieldbus traffic periodic traffic decentralizedcentralized tokenTDMApollingCSMA TTP SERCOS INTERBUS CONTROLNET WORLDFIP PROFIBUS-DP PROFIBUS-PA FF P-NET PROFIBUS FMS + polling CAN DEVICENET SDS CANOPEN LON

20 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200420 fieldbus traffic aperiodic traffic decentralized as periodic periodic server when token time slot in each frame special frame on demand CSMA

21 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200421 fieldbus traffic aperiodic traffic decentralizedperiodic server when token CONTROLNET P-NET INTERBUS WORLDFIP PROFIBUS-PA FF CSMA CAN SDS DeviceNet

22 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200422 WorldFIP - 1 75 Speed Local Write Speed copy Local Read 52 Speed copy Local Read Speed Bus arbitrator 52

23 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200423 WorldFIP - 2 75 Speed Local Write Speed copy Local Read 52 Speed copy Local Read Speed Bus arbitrator Speed 52

24 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200424 WorldFIP - 3 75 Speed Local Write Speed copy Local Read Speed copy Local Read Speed Bus arbitrator v(Speed)=75

25 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200425 WorldFIP - 4 75 Speed Local Write Speed copy Local Read Speed copy Local Read Speed Bus arbitrator 75

26 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200426 WorldFIP - 5 VAR1 VAR2 VAR4 VAR7 VARX … VAR5 VAR1 VAR5 VAR7 VARX VAR5 POLLING TABLE PERIODIC TRAFFIC STATIC APERIODIC TRAFFIC DYNAMIC

27 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200427 Profibus - 1 M1M2M3M4 Slave3Slave2Slave1 Slave4 Slave5 TOKEN passing POLLING ANSWER

28 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200428 Profibus -2 role of a Profibus master –receive the token –perform high priority messages first –perform the exchanges specified in the Poll List –perform low priority messages –perform station registration (live list) –send the token

29 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200429 ControlNet - 1 based on a fixed repetitive time cycle –Network Update Time (NUT) –close synchronism –each node - a clock synchronised to the NUT –access to the medium in sequential order based on the MAC ID of the node –implicit token passing at the end of a frame, comparison of the received MAC ID +1 with the own address

30 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200430 ControlNet - 2 Scheduled part NUT i NUT I+1 Unscheduled part Guard Band station K station K+1

31 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200431 ControlNet - 3 in a NUT, three time windows –scheduled –unscheduled –Guard Band one MAC Frame by node in scheduled part predictable and deterministic manner Round Robin in the unscheduled part

32 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200432 Interbus - 1 Station K periodic data Station K aperiodic data start K+1 K+2

33 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200433 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs and MACs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

34 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200434 the birth of TCCA (ISO) MAP project –no real time –mini-MAP experiments for real time –real time requirements (from EMUG - 1989) difficulties of IEC Fieldbus standardization

35 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200435 real time requirements (from EMUG) user designated priorities ==>OSI stack problems predictable or boundable delays and behavior user selection of the error recovery strategy congestion recovery appropriate to messaging traffic support multicast communications

36 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200436 real time requirements (from EMUG) means of synchronizing the sense of distributed time support communications redundancy and redundancy in (of) controlling entities inexpensive network connection inter-work with informational network security mechanisms, privacy, authentification and minimization of denial-of-service

37 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200437 the OSI model OSI-ISO model and real time ? OSI model is an organization of communication functions OSI layers 1 and 2 : basic transport (simple network) OSI layers 3 and 4 : extended transport (complex network) OSI layers 5, 6 and 7 : service enhancements, user oriented –layer 5: synchronization –layer 6: languages and dialects - transfer syntax –layer 7: messaging services - standards languages for different application-specific needs

38 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200438 the model Physical layer Time-Critical OSI data link layer OSI network layer OSI transport layer OSI Application layer Fieldbus application layer OSI presentation layer OSI session layer Fieldbus presentation layer omitted

39 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200439 Time-Critical data link layer IEC 61158 - type 1 as the model issued from –ISA SP50 - 1990-359E: data link service definition –ISA SP50 - 1990-360C: data link protocol definition and later from –IEC 65C/160 CDV (1996): data link service definition –IEC 65C/161 CDV (1996): data link protocol definition

40 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200440 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

41 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200441 data link layer provided features –independence from the physical layer –transparency of transferred information –reliability and Qualities of Service –addressing –scheduling –common time sense and timeliness –storages (Queues and Buffers)

42 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200442 buffers and queues 14 12 16 12 16 12 14 16 14 12

43 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200443 storage types of storage –queues –retentive buffers –non retentive buffers general rules –sender by queue receiver in queue –sender by buffer receiver in queue receiver in buffer

44 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200444 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

45 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200445 arbitrator NODE ARBITRATOR DISTRIBUTE COMPEL

46 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200446 token NODE TOKEN Message Reply TOKEN

47 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200447 L.A.S. NODE L.A.S. DISTRIBUTE COMPEL

48 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200448 L.A.S. NODE L.A.S. TOKEN MSG REPLY

49 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200449 L.A.S. NODE L.A.S. TOKEN

50 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200450 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

51 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200451 timeliness timeliness for data transfer between buffers buffers can decouple –data production –data transfer –data consumption data age may be unknown

52 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200452 timeliness resident assessment based upon the length of time that a data unit has been resident in a buffer Residence Time Write-date Read-date End of time window

53 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200453 timeliness update assessment based upon the time interval between a synchronizing event and the moment the buffer is written Update-Time Synchro-date Writing-date End of time window

54 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200454 timeliness synchronous assessment based upon the time intervals and timing relationships between –a synchronizing event –the moment when the buffer is written –the moment the buffer is read Synchro-date Writing-dateEnd of time window Read-date

55 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200455 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion: standards and lack of standard

56 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200456 application relationships client - server –confirmed –unconfirmed publisher - subscriber –pull publisher –push publisher

57 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200457 client - server classical model application layer client server XXX-Request XXX-Confirmation XXX-Response XXX-Indication

58 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200458 client - server unusual model application layer client server XXX-Request XXX-Indication

59 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200459 client - server unusual model application layer client server XXX-Request YYY-Indication YYY-Request XXX-Indication

60 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200460 publisher - subscriber pull model subscriber pull publisher Request Response publishing manager

61 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200461 publisher - subscriber push model push subscriber push publisher subscribing request published information response

62 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200462 time coherence time coherence of actions, of events simultaneity of events occurrences in a given time window time coherence of –productions –consumptions –other actions

63 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200463 time coherence control of time coherence –data received indication –allows, in multi peer connections, the synchronization of subscribers usable to control any actions simultaneity verification of time coherence –by timeliness attributes

64 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200464 space - time consistency need reliable broadcasting management of lists of variables (copies) –produced by different publishers –consumed by several subscribers verification and correction to obtain identical lists by the subscribers kind of global acknowledgement for different transmitters hypothesis: –two remote copies are considered identical if they are received without error and correct timeliness attributes

65 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200465 space - time consistency NODE NODE 7 NODE NODE 9 NODE NODE 8 NODE NODE 6 NODE L.A.S. COMPEL (A) value(A) COMPEL (B) DISTRIBUTE B value(B) DISTRIBUTE A COMPEL L6 DISTRIBUTE L6 L6=OK L8=OK L9=OK L7=not OK, B

66 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200466 contents history –the industrial networks –the birth of fieldbus fieldbus DLLs TCCA: real time to OSI-ISO IEC 61158 DLL features –buffers and queues –Link Active Scheduling –timeliness attributes application layer –application relationships –coherences and consistencies conclusion

67 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200467 scheduling three types of networks –1st periodic traffic, prescheduled at the configuration time sporadic traffic, prescheduled at the configuration time –2nd periodic traffic, prescheduled at the configuration time sporadic traffic, dynamically managed –3rd periodic and sporadic traffics dynamically managed

68 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200468 profiles how many layers ? which layers ? which protocols ? stack modelling ? which models ? which objectives ? wireless, fibre optic ? TDMA, CSMA, token ? LLC1, LLC3, …?? C/S, P/C, P/S… TCP/IP,others ?

69 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200469 conclusion real time networks –industrial networks –afterwards, in car, in trains… in building automation in Internet –but also now, for all devices mobility ambient intelligence –Internet

70 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200470 conclusion real time = to express the constraints + to meet the constraints + behaviour controlled by the user

71 Jean-Pierre Thomessethe fieldbus technology le 16 Janvier 200471 LORIA – Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications Jean-Pierre Thomesse Professeur INPL real-time networks: the fieldbus technology


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