Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures Understanding FoodChapter 22:Flours and Flour MixturesThe simplest flour mixture is one made from flour and water.Other ingredients that may be added include milk, fat, eggs, sugar, salt, flavoring, and leavening agents.Yeast bread: Bread made with yeast, which produces carbon dioxide gas through the process of fermentation, causing the bread to rise.Quick bread: Bread leavened with air, steam, and/or carbon dioxide from baking soda or baking powder.
2 Flours Types of Wheat Flour Whole-Wheat Flour White Flour Durum Flour (Semolina)All-Purpose FlourPastry FlourCake FlourGluten Flour
3 FloursGluten: The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics necessary for the structure of most baked products.Knead: To work the dough into an elastic mass by pushing, stretching, and folding it.
5 FloursStarch is one of the compounds in flour that strengthens the baked item through gelatinization, and is one of the factors that contributes to crumb.Crumb: The texture of a baked product’s interior.
6 FloursKneading is used extensively in bread-making and briefly for biscuits and pastries.
8 Flours Aged Flour Bleached Flour Enriched Flour Treated Flours Types of Non-Wheat FlourRice FlourRye FlourCornmeal FlourSoy FlourBuckwheat FlourTriticale FlourPotato FlourGluten-free Grains and Flours for baking and bread.Treated FloursAged FlourBleached FlourEnriched FlourRice is gluten freeSoy is higher in protein because it is made for soy beans (high in protein) More lysine than grains.Triticale is hybrid of wheat and rye.Potato cooked and dried potatoes.Aged- fresh milled is not white, and the baked products are of poor quality. Historically flour was stored so it could age and become naturally bleached by oxygen in air. $Bleached – to bypass natural aging, all purpose flour is exposed to chlorine gas. It lightens the flour(bleaches out the carotenoids) and improvesB the condition of the gluten. Bleaching agents evaporate and do not alter the nutrient value of flour.Enriched – B vitamins and iron.
9 Flour Mixture Ingredients Flour mixture ingredients may include:SugarSaltLiquidFatEggsLeavening agentsSugar- sweetness, volume, moistness, tenderness, color , appearance and caloriesfood for yeast, increases volume of baked product as it increase temperature of coagulation –rises longer, finer textureWater retaining thus delays staling, add moistureCompetes with starch for water and necessary hydration for gluten formationBrowning thru carmelization.SaltSalt -Flavor, firmer dough,Liquid – hydrates flour for gelatinization, allows gluten to form, solvent for other ingredientsFat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better.Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color.Delays staling.Eggs – flavor, color, leavening, nutrients and structural enhancement. Coagulation of egg proteins make a fine and delicate crumb.
10 Sugar Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following: SweeteningProtective coatingIncreases the volumeContributes to volumeRaises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occurIncreases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay stalingHelps to brown the outer crust of baked productsFunctions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following:SweeteningProtective coatingIncreases the volume by the incorporation of air into the fatContributes to volume by providing food for the yeastRaises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occurIncreases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay stalingHelps to brown the outer crust of baked products through caramelization and the Maillard reaction
11 Salt/flavorings Salt/Flavoring Small amounts of salt are added to flour mixtures for:FlavoringProducing a firmer dough…for improving the:VolumeTextureEvenness of cell structureShelf-life.Flavor extracts, cocoa, melted baking chocolate, fruits, spices, nuts, and other flavorings, seemingly limited only by the baker’s imagination, may be added to vary the taste experience
12 Flour Mixture Ingredients Too much salt inhibits yeast activity, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced and decreasing the volume of the loaf.
13 Liquid Hydrate the flour Gelatinize the starch. Gluten formation Solvent for the dry ingredients,Activates the yeast,Provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas.Liquid in some form is required in flour mixtures to hydrate the flour and to gelatinize the starch.The water in the liquid also allows gluten to be formed, acts as a solvent for the dry ingredients, activates the yeast, provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gasMilk is usually recommended over water, because it improves the overall quality of the baked product.In addition to contributing water, milk adds flavor and nutrients and contains certain compounds that help produce a velvety texture, a creamy white crumb, and a browner crust.The lactose in milk participates in the Maillard reaction.
14 Fat Fat performs many functions in baked goods. It acts as a: TenderizerIt adds:VolumeStructureFlakinessFlavorColorResistance to stalingIt also plays a role in heat transferCoats flour and prevents gluten formation.Fat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better.Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color.Delays staling.
15 Eggs Eggs are added to some flour mixtures: Structural integrity LeaveningColorFlavorAnd/or nutrient contentEggs are added to some flour mixtures:To enhance their structural integrityFor their contributions to leaveningColorFlavorAnd/or nutrient content
16 Leavening AgentsBaking soda: A white chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate.Baking powder: A chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acid(s), and an inert filler such as cornstarch.Baking soda
17 Baking soda needs an acid to work. Examples include: tartaric acid, molasiss, lemon, brouwn sugar, cocoa.Works immediately. Do not leave on counter, put in oven
18 Flour Mixture Ingredients Baking powder has an acid. Double acting the most common. No rush here.The two main types of baking powder are:Fast, or single-acting, powderSlow, or double-acting, powder
19 YeastYeasts are available in several forms, and are classified on the basis of their activity.Active yeasts include:Baker’s yeastBrewer’s yeastYeasts for alcoholic beveragesInactive yeasts, such as:Dried brewer’s yeastPrimary- grown yeasts
20 Flour Mixture Ingredients The ability of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which are naturally found in air, water, and living organisms, to produce carbon dioxide through fermentation.
22 Preparation of Baked Goods Dough: A flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded.Batter: A flour mixture that contains more water than a dough and whose consistency ranges from pourable to sticky.
23 Preparation of Baked Goods Batters, like doughs, are also classified according to their moisture content, and may be either pour or drop batters.
24 Storage of Flour and Flour Mixtures Flour should be stored in pest-proof containers and kept in a cool, dry place.White flour will keep in such conditions for about a year.Whole-grain flours should be refrigerated and can be held for only about three months.Flour should be kept cool to prevent the activation of its natural enzymes, which can cause it to deteriorate if it is stored too long.Kneaded flour mixtures can be frozen; after defrosting, they are ready to be shaped and baked.Extended frozen storage can lead to a gradual loss of dough strength, which is why frozen doughs have a relatively short shelf life.
26 Preparation of Yeast Breads When breads are leavened with carbon dioxide produced by baker’s yeast, they are known as yeast breads.Yeast bread is prepared by mixing the ingredients into a dense, pliable dough that is kneaded, allowed to rise by fermentation, and then cookedBaker’s yeast, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a one-celled fungus that multiplies rapidly at the right temperature and in the presence of a small amount of sugar and moisture., typically by baking, but sometimes by steaming or frying.Normally, the preparation of yeast bread is at least a two-and-a-half to three-hour operation.Sourdough breads take even longer, requiring about eight to ten hours to make and fully develop their flavor.
27 Preparation of Yeast Breads The fundamental ingredients of any yeast bread are:FlourLiquidSugarSaltYeastFat (optional)Eggs (optional)The four best-known methods for mixing yeast breads are:Straight doughSpongeBatterRapidFunctionFlour – structure. High protein flour for best results. More gluten potentialLiquid- hydrate solids, gelatinizationSalt- controls yeast growth. Fermentation would be too rapid without it and result in sticky dough. Too much inhibits yeast activity.Yeast- biological leavening agent. Single cell organismFat and eggs
28 Preparation of Yeast Breads As the yeast ferments, the dough will double in size as carbon dioxide is produced by the yeast and as enzyme and pH changes take effect.
29 Kneading develops the dought’s gluten to its maximum potential
30 Preparation of Yeast Breads Another way to determine if kneading is complete is to stretch some of the dough into a “gluten window.”
31 Preparation of Yeast Breads Yeasts are very sensitive to temperature extremes.Optimal fermentation temperatures:Activated at 68 to 100°F (20 to 38°C)Slowing down below 50°F (10°C)Dying if exposed to temperatures at or above 140°F (60°C)Yeast feed off of saccarrides either from flour or sugar. An enzyme in yeast hydrolizes starc to glucose and fructose whle flour amylases break down starch to maltose.During hydration yeastactivated (alive but dormant before)Activated in warm waterCarbon dioxide generat4d by growing yeast makes dough rise
32 Preparation of Yeast Breads Punching Down— Second RisingOnce the dough has risen to double its size, it is punched down and left to rise a second time.ShapingAfter the bread has risen, it is ready for shaping.Punching down evens out temperatures, redistributes sugars, yeast and gluten, breaks large air bubbles into smaller cells and lets excess carbon dioxide escape. Otherwise large holes.
33 Preparation of Yeast Breads Proofing is the final rising that occurs in the pan or on a baking sheet, and it has an important effect on the quality of the finished bread.Proof: To increase the volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation.Place the shaped dough in a warm humid environment. Cover with cloth and allow to double in size.One of the purposes of proofing is to create a dough that is adequately aerated.If the dough expands beyond what is recommended, it leads to overextension of the gluten, which causes the cell walls to break and collapse, the fermentation gas to escape, and, ultimately, a low volume in the finished product.
34 Preparation of Yeast Breads Oven spring: The quick expansion of dough during the first ten minutes of baking, caused by expanding gases.
35 Preparation of Yeast Breads Crumb: The cell structure appearing when a baked product is sliced. Evaluation is based on cell size (called “open” if medium to large, or “closed” if small), cell shape, and cell thickness (thin walls occur in fine crumb, while thick walls predominate in a coarse crumb).
36 Varieties of Yeast Breads The simplest yeast bread is made from:FlourWaterYeastThis basic formula has evolved into more complicated varieties.Varieties that include loaf breads:WhiteWhole-wheatSourdoughMalt breadOther varieties include:RollsPita breadBagelsEnglish muffinsPizza crustRaised doughnutsSpecialty breads
38 Storage of Yeast Breads FreshIf it is not going to be consumed right away, it should be completely cooled before being wrapped and stored in a dry, cool place at room temperature.Unfortunately, staling starts as soon as the bread leaves the oven.Staling is best prevented by keeping the bread away from air.Several techniques include:Wrapping breads in plastic or paper bagsAdding moisture retainers such as fat or sugarAnd/or freezing
39 Storage of Yeast Breads RefrigeratedBread should be refrigerated immediately in the warm temperatures and moist humidity of tropical regions.In less humid areas, refrigerating bread is not recommended because it speeds staling.FrozenFreezing is one of the best ways to maintain some of the texture and flavor of freshly baked bread.Most breads can be frozen for two or three months.The bread should be wrapped in heavy-duty aluminum foil and dated.Frozen bread should be removed from the freezer and thawed at room temperature in the wrapper.