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Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures

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1 Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures
Understanding Food Chapter 22: Flours and Flour Mixtures The simplest flour mixture is one made from flour and water. Other ingredients that may be added include milk, fat, eggs, sugar, salt, flavoring, and leavening agents. Yeast bread: Bread made with yeast, which produces carbon dioxide gas through the process of fermentation, causing the bread to rise. Quick bread: Bread leavened with air, steam, and/or carbon dioxide from baking soda or baking powder.

2 Flours Types of Wheat Flour Whole-Wheat Flour White Flour
Durum Flour (Semolina) All-Purpose Flour Pastry Flour Cake Flour Gluten Flour

3 Flours Gluten: The protein portion of wheat flour with the elastic characteristics necessary for the structure of most baked products. Knead: To work the dough into an elastic mass by pushing, stretching, and folding it.


5 Flours Starch is one of the compounds in flour that strengthens the baked item through gelatinization, and is one of the factors that contributes to crumb. Crumb: The texture of a baked product’s interior.

6 Flours Kneading is used extensively in bread-making and briefly for biscuits and pastries.


8 Flours Aged Flour Bleached Flour Enriched Flour Treated Flours
Types of Non-Wheat Flour Rice Flour Rye Flour Cornmeal Flour Soy Flour Buckwheat Flour Triticale Flour Potato Flour Gluten-free Grains and Flours for baking and bread. Treated Flours Aged Flour Bleached Flour Enriched Flour Rice is gluten free Soy is higher in protein because it is made for soy beans (high in protein) More lysine than grains. Triticale is hybrid of wheat and rye. Potato cooked and dried potatoes. Aged- fresh milled is not white, and the baked products are of poor quality. Historically flour was stored so it could age and become naturally bleached by oxygen in air. $ Bleached – to bypass natural aging, all purpose flour is exposed to chlorine gas. It lightens the flour(bleaches out the carotenoids) and improvesB the condition of the gluten. Bleaching agents evaporate and do not alter the nutrient value of flour. Enriched – B vitamins and iron.

9 Flour Mixture Ingredients
Flour mixture ingredients may include: Sugar Salt Liquid Fat Eggs Leavening agents Sugar- sweetness, volume, moistness, tenderness, color , appearance and calories food for yeast, increases volume of baked product as it increase temperature of coagulation –rises longer, finer texture Water retaining thus delays staling, add moisture Competes with starch for water and necessary hydration for gluten formation Browning thru carmelization. Salt Salt -Flavor, firmer dough, Liquid – hydrates flour for gelatinization, allows gluten to form, solvent for other ingredients Fat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better. Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color. Delays staling. Eggs – flavor, color, leavening, nutrients and structural enhancement. Coagulation of egg proteins make a fine and delicate crumb.

10 Sugar Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following:
Sweetening Protective coating Increases the volume Contributes to volume Raises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occur Increases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay staling Helps to brown the outer crust of baked products Functions of sugar in flour mixtures include the following: Sweetening Protective coating Increases the volume by the incorporation of air into the fat Contributes to volume by providing food for the yeast Raises the temperature at which gelatinization and coagulation occur Increases moistness and tenderness and also helps delay staling Helps to brown the outer crust of baked products through caramelization and the Maillard reaction

11 Salt/flavorings Salt/Flavoring
Small amounts of salt are added to flour mixtures for: Flavoring Producing a firmer dough …for improving the: Volume Texture Evenness of cell structure Shelf-life . Flavor extracts, cocoa, melted baking chocolate, fruits, spices, nuts, and other flavorings, seemingly limited only by the baker’s imagination, may be added to vary the taste experience

12 Flour Mixture Ingredients
Too much salt inhibits yeast activity, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced and decreasing the volume of the loaf.

13 Liquid Hydrate the flour Gelatinize the starch. Gluten formation
Solvent for the dry ingredients, Activates the yeast, Provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas. Liquid in some form is required in flour mixtures to hydrate the flour and to gelatinize the starch. The water in the liquid also allows gluten to be formed, acts as a solvent for the dry ingredients, activates the yeast, provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce carbon dioxide gas Milk is usually recommended over water, because it improves the overall quality of the baked product. In addition to contributing water, milk adds flavor and nutrients and contains certain compounds that help produce a velvety texture, a creamy white crumb, and a browner crust. The lactose in milk participates in the Maillard reaction.

14 Fat Fat performs many functions in baked goods. It acts as a:
Tenderizer It adds: Volume Structure Flakiness Flavor Color Resistance to staling It also plays a role in heat transfer Coats flour and prevents gluten formation. Fat – improves volume, melts during baking adding to moisture and batter expands better. Improves crumb, strength, and flakiness. Lower fat has velvety crumb. Flavor and color. Delays staling.

15 Eggs Eggs are added to some flour mixtures: Structural integrity
Leavening Color Flavor And/or nutrient content Eggs are added to some flour mixtures: To enhance their structural integrity For their contributions to leavening Color Flavor And/or nutrient content

16 Leavening Agents Baking soda: A white chemical leavening powder consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Baking powder: A chemical leavener consisting of a mixture of baking soda, acid(s), and an inert filler such as cornstarch. Baking soda

17 Baking soda needs an acid to work.
Examples include: tartaric acid, molasiss, lemon, brouwn sugar, cocoa. Works immediately. Do not leave on counter, put in oven

18 Flour Mixture Ingredients
Baking powder has an acid. Double acting the most common. No rush here. The two main types of baking powder are: Fast, or single-acting, powder Slow, or double-acting, powder

19 Yeast Yeasts are available in several forms, and are classified on the basis of their activity. Active yeasts include: Baker’s yeast Brewer’s yeast Yeasts for alcoholic beverages Inactive yeasts, such as: Dried brewer’s yeast Primary- grown yeasts

20 Flour Mixture Ingredients
The ability of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which are naturally found in air, water, and living organisms, to produce carbon dioxide through fermentation.


22 Preparation of Baked Goods
Dough: A flour mixture that is dry enough to be handled and kneaded. Batter: A flour mixture that contains more water than a dough and whose consistency ranges from pourable to sticky.

23 Preparation of Baked Goods
Batters, like doughs, are also classified according to their moisture content, and may be either pour or drop batters.

24 Storage of Flour and Flour Mixtures
Flour should be stored in pest-proof containers and kept in a cool, dry place. White flour will keep in such conditions for about a year. Whole-grain flours should be refrigerated and can be held for only about three months. Flour should be kept cool to prevent the activation of its natural enzymes, which can cause it to deteriorate if it is stored too long. Kneaded flour mixtures can be frozen; after defrosting, they are ready to be shaped and baked. Extended frozen storage can lead to a gradual loss of dough strength, which is why frozen doughs have a relatively short shelf life.

25 Understanding Food Chapter 24: Yeast Breads

26 Preparation of Yeast Breads
When breads are leavened with carbon dioxide produced by baker’s yeast, they are known as yeast breads. Yeast bread is prepared by mixing the ingredients into a dense, pliable dough that is kneaded, allowed to rise by fermentation, and then cooked Baker’s yeast, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a one-celled fungus that multiplies rapidly at the right temperature and in the presence of a small amount of sugar and moisture. , typically by baking, but sometimes by steaming or frying. Normally, the preparation of yeast bread is at least a two-and-a-half to three-hour operation. Sourdough breads take even longer, requiring about eight to ten hours to make and fully develop their flavor.

27 Preparation of Yeast Breads
The fundamental ingredients of any yeast bread are: Flour Liquid Sugar Salt Yeast Fat (optional) Eggs (optional) The four best-known methods for mixing yeast breads are: Straight dough Sponge Batter Rapid Function Flour – structure. High protein flour for best results. More gluten potential Liquid- hydrate solids, gelatinization Salt- controls yeast growth. Fermentation would be too rapid without it and result in sticky dough. Too much inhibits yeast activity. Yeast- biological leavening agent. Single cell organism Fat and eggs

28 Preparation of Yeast Breads
As the yeast ferments, the dough will double in size as carbon dioxide is produced by the yeast and as enzyme and pH changes take effect.

29 Kneading develops the dought’s gluten to its maximum potential

30 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Another way to determine if kneading is complete is to stretch some of the dough into a “gluten window.”

31 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Yeasts are very sensitive to temperature extremes. Optimal fermentation temperatures: Activated at 68 to 100°F (20 to 38°C) Slowing down below 50°F (10°C) Dying if exposed to temperatures at or above 140°F (60°C) Yeast feed off of saccarrides either from flour or sugar. An enzyme in yeast hydrolizes starc to glucose and fructose whle flour amylases break down starch to maltose. During hydration yeastactivated (alive but dormant before) Activated in warm water Carbon dioxide generat4d by growing yeast makes dough rise

32 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Punching Down— Second Rising Once the dough has risen to double its size, it is punched down and left to rise a second time. Shaping After the bread has risen, it is ready for shaping. Punching down evens out temperatures, redistributes sugars, yeast and gluten, breaks large air bubbles into smaller cells and lets excess carbon dioxide escape. Otherwise large holes.

33 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Proofing is the final rising that occurs in the pan or on a baking sheet, and it has an important effect on the quality of the finished bread. Proof: To increase the volume of shaped dough through continued fermentation. Place the shaped dough in a warm humid environment. Cover with cloth and allow to double in size. One of the purposes of proofing is to create a dough that is adequately aerated. If the dough expands beyond what is recommended, it leads to overextension of the gluten, which causes the cell walls to break and collapse, the fermentation gas to escape, and, ultimately, a low volume in the finished product.

34 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Oven spring: The quick expansion of dough during the first ten minutes of baking, caused by expanding gases.

35 Preparation of Yeast Breads
Crumb: The cell structure appearing when a baked product is sliced. Evaluation is based on cell size (called “open” if medium to large, or “closed” if small), cell shape, and cell thickness (thin walls occur in fine crumb, while thick walls predominate in a coarse crumb).

36 Varieties of Yeast Breads
The simplest yeast bread is made from: Flour Water Yeast This basic formula has evolved into more complicated varieties. Varieties that include loaf breads: White Whole-wheat Sourdough Malt bread Other varieties include: Rolls Pita bread Bagels English muffins Pizza crust Raised doughnuts Specialty breads


38 Storage of Yeast Breads
Fresh If it is not going to be consumed right away, it should be completely cooled before being wrapped and stored in a dry, cool place at room temperature. Unfortunately, staling starts as soon as the bread leaves the oven. Staling is best prevented by keeping the bread away from air. Several techniques include: Wrapping breads in plastic or paper bags Adding moisture retainers such as fat or sugar And/or freezing

39 Storage of Yeast Breads
Refrigerated Bread should be refrigerated immediately in the warm temperatures and moist humidity of tropical regions. In less humid areas, refrigerating bread is not recommended because it speeds staling. Frozen Freezing is one of the best ways to maintain some of the texture and flavor of freshly baked bread. Most breads can be frozen for two or three months. The bread should be wrapped in heavy-duty aluminum foil and dated. Frozen bread should be removed from the freezer and thawed at room temperature in the wrapper.

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