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Engine Intro & Basic Induction

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Presentation on theme: "Engine Intro & Basic Induction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Engine Intro & Basic Induction
Presented by: Will Miller

2 Engine Types Turbine Engine Reciprocating Engine
Found in transport Category aircraft Relatively costly but extremely powerful Reciprocating Engine Found in general aviation Economical, but still very reliable

3 Cessna Engine Horizontally Opposed Direct Drive Air Cooled 4 cylinder

4 Engine Operation What are the four strokes of an engine?

5 Four Strokes on an Engine

6 Intake When the piston moves away form the cylinder head
Intake valve opens Fuel/Air mixture is drawn into the combustion chamber

7 Compression Piston moves back toward the cylinder head
Intake valve closes Fuel/Air Mixture is compressed

8 Power Compression nearly complete Spark plugs fire
Compressed mixture is ignited Rapidly expanding gases drive the piston, providing the power that rotates the crankshaft

9 Exhaust Expels the burned gases through the exhaust valve, which opens at the end of the power stroke

10 Induction System Brings outside air into the engine, mixes it with fuel in the proper proportion and deliver it to the cylinders where combustion occurs. Throttle Mixture Intake Port

11 Throttle Controls Engine Speed
Regulates the amount of fuel/air mixture that flows into the cylinders

12 Mixture Controls the fuel/air ratio

13 Intake Port Where outside air enters the induction system
Normally contains an air filter to keep out dust and FOD

14 Carburetor Mixes the incoming air with fuel and delivers it to the combustion chamber

15 Carburetor Air passes through a venturi, increases velocity and decreases pressure Fuel enters from a float chamber where it is maintained at a nearly constant level by a float device Discharge nozzle is located in an area of low pressure created by the venturi Fuel is forced through the discharge nozzel by the higher atmospheric pressure in the float chamber

16 Overly Rich Mixture What does it mean to have a “Rich” mixture?
As altitude increases, the mixture will get progressively richer due to the decrease in air density. Can result in engine roughness: excessive carbon buildup on the spark plug will cause them to foul. High elevation airports, climb or cruise at high elevation

17 Overly Lean Mixture What does it mean to have a “Lean” mixture?
May result in high engine temperatures causing excessive wear or even failure Enrichen Mixture on descents from high altitudes Watch engine temperature

18 Carburetor Ice Occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and decreasing pressure in the venturi which causes a sharp temperature drop in the carburetor If water vapor in the air condenses when the carburetor temperature is at or below freezing, ice may form on internal surfaces of the carburetor, including the throttle valve Likely below 21C (70F), humidity above 80%

19 Carburetor Ice

20 Carburetor Ice

21 Carburetor Ice Indications
Why can Carburetor Ice be dangerous? What are some indications of Carb Ice? Drop in engine RPM Engine Roughness Fuel starvation What can we do to get rid of carburetor ice or even prevent it from happening in the first place? Carburetor Heat

22 Carburetor Heat Carburetor ice is especially dangerous when operating at low power settings, may go unnoticed until power is added How does carburetor heat work? Carburetor heat routes air across a heat source before it enters the carburetor How will carb heat affect engine performance? Causes a slight decrease in engine power (heated air is less dense) If ice is present, there will be a decrease followed by a gradual increase in rpm

23 Carburetor Heat

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