Presentation on theme: "Egypt – The Nile River Valley"— Presentation transcript:
1 Egypt – The Nile River Valley Civilization developed in a river valley with fertile soilNile is the world’s longest riverNile river begins in East Africa and flows 3,500 miles north towards the Mediterranean Sea
2 Egypt – The Nile River Valley Nile has two main sourcesWhite Nile flows from Lake VictoriaBlue Nile flows from modern-day EthiopiaThe two rivers meet in present day Sudan (before known as Nubia or Kush)Nile flows through the Sahara DesertSahara is the largest desert in the worldNile was difficult to travel by shipContained cataracts, or rocky rapids
3 Upper and Lower Egypt Southern Egypt Narrow Valley lined with cliffs Upper EgyptLower EgyptSouthern EgyptNarrow Valley lined with cliffsCataractsUpstream from Mediterranean SeaNorthern EgyptRiver here is slowerRiver carries silt, mineral particles that make soil fertileContains river delta, an area of sediment deposited at the mouth of the river
4 Black and Red Land Vast deserts on the sides of Black Land Black Land (Kemet)Red LandNarrow strip of dark, fertile soil around banks of the Nile riverPositive: Yearly flooding left behind a layer of rich, fertile soilNegative: Floods were unpredictable (natural disasters) and droughts (shortage of water) made crops fail.Vast deserts on the sides of Black LandDeadly place of hot, burning sands.
5 A Civilization Develops 7,000 years ago: People start growing grains around Nile riverIrrigation system produced food surplusFarmers’ surplus crops were collected as taxesLocal rulers used surplus to buy cloth, jewelry, and luxury goodsFarmers’ surplus supported full-time artisans, who had time to perfect their skillsCities brought together wealthy and skilled people.Why could some Egyptians take jobs other than farming?
6 Egypt is in the continent of Africa. Can you find Egypt?
7 The desert surrounded Egypt on the West, East, and South. Up North, the Mediterranean Sea protected them. Egypt was allowed to evolve in its own way.
8 What is the name of the hot, dry and sandy land that covers most of Egypt? SAHARA DESERT
9 Egyptian Religion Believed Gods controlled everything Ex. Flooding of the Nile riverEx. Death of a childEgyptians built temples and offered prayers and giftsEarly Egyptians were polytheists (hundreds)Many Gods associated with animals
10 Osiris King of the afterlife Symbolized the yearly drought and flooding of the Nile.Gave Egypt civilization.Married his sister, IsisConspirators killed him by chopping him up into piecesIsis, his wife, found the pieces and put him back together
11 Ra / Re / Amun-Ra King of the Gods Sun god, King of the Gods. Hawk head with solar disk on top.Sometimes seen as the creator of men (Egyptians called themselves "the cattle of Ra”)Made daily journey across the skyDied in the West each night and was reborn in the East the next day.How could the movement of the Sun affect the beliefs of early Egyptians?
12 Horus Falcon headed The Pharaoh was his earthly embodiment. Son of Osiris and IsisSeth, his brother, is always trying to hurt himHis sons take care of the organs during the mummification process
13 Isis Isis was the sister/wife of Osiris May be one of the judges of the deadHas magical powersThe purest example of the loving wife and mother
14 AnubisHead of a jackalGuides the dead to the underworld and weighs their heart (bad deeds make your heart weigh more)Works with Osiris in the underworldMummification god
15 Ammut “Eater of the Dead” She stands by the scales of the hearts and eats the hearts of the wickedHead of a crocodile, body of a leopard, hind legs of a hippo
16 ThothMoon GodScribe (records the weight of the hearts in the underworld)Invented writing
17 Bast Cat-headed Goddess of love and childbirth Cats are sacred (many cats were mummified in her honor)
18 Bes Protector of households, mothers, children, and childbirth Later regarded as defender of everything goodImages were kept in homesTasks: killing snakes, fighting off evil spirits, aiding women in labor, protect soldiers before battle
19 Sekhmet Lion headed Breathes fire against her enemies Her breath created the desertDelivers punishment to the godsProtector of pharaohs and leader in war