2 8K Light What is light? Reflection Refraction Colour Contents8K LightWhat is light?ReflectionRefractionColourSummary activities
3 What is light? Light carries energy and travels as a wave. Light travels much faster than sound at a speed of 300,000,000 m/s, which is the same as 300,000 km/s.Light waves travel in straight lines.
4 Which materials let light through? Opaque materials do not allow light to pass through them – transparent materials do. A material that is translucent only lets part of the light through.Hold different materials between the lamp and the screen.Use the results table and shading chart on the next slide to estimate the opacity of different materials.
5 Which materials let light through? Opaque materials do not allow light to pass through them – transparent materials do. A material that is translucent only lets part of the light through.Shading chart100%2.5 %75 %5 %50 %10 %30 %15 %25 %20 %0%
6 Light waves travel in straight lines. How does light travel?1. Fill a clear glass trough or empty fish tank with smoke.2. Use a slit to shine rays of light through the tank and describe what you see.Light waves travel in straight lines.
7 Seeing light How do you see an object? Light from the object enters your eye.Do you see all objects in the same way?There are two ways you see objects:You see some objects because they are light sources.You see other objects by reflected light.
8 Seeing a luminous object A luminous object gives out light and can also be called a light source.How does light from a light bulb and other light sources reach your eye?Light travels in a straight line directly into your eye.
9 Seeing a non-luminous object Objects that do not give out light are non-luminous.How does your eye see non-luminous objects such as a book?Light from the light source strikes the book and some of the light is reflected into your eye.
10 8K Light What is light? Reflection Refraction Colour Contents8K LightWhat is light?ReflectionRefractionColourSummary activities
11 Good and bad reflective materials Objects that reflect light well:have smooth, shiny surfaces and are usually pale colours;give clear images because they reflect light regularly;mirrors are excellent reflectors.Objects that do not reflect light well:have rough, matt surfaces and are usually dark colours.give no or diffuse images because they reflect the light irregularly.
12 Good and bad reflective materials Arrange these items along the arrow:best reflectorsworst reflectorsyellow bananared rosestarmac roadblue carwhite paperpolished black shoestangerinegreen leafaluminium foiltree bark
13 Light that is not reflected What happens to light that is not reflected?Some of this light may be absorbed,e.g. as heat.Some of this may also be transmitted,e.g. glass reflects a small amount of light, absorbs some of the rest and allows most of it to pass through.
14 Reflection investigations The following activities are designed to investigate the main laws of reflection.Summarize each investigation with a law based on the results of the exercise.1. Reading in mirrors.2. How far away is the image?3. The maths of reflection.4. Reflecting without mirrors.
15 Reading in mirrors – instructions In small groups, take it in turns to read the list of words on the next slide with your back to the screen using a mirror.You can only move on to the next word when you have read the first word correctly.Put your results in a table like this:
16 Reading in mirrors – words dog man ballbat bike antspark fins pinklitter sandy sharkNo Cheating
17 Reading in mirrors – results 1. Who read the words in the quickest time?2. Plot a bar chart of your results:3. What was the average time taken in your group?
18 What is different about the image? Lateral inversionA plane mirror reflects light regularly so that it produces a clear image which is the same size as the object.What is different about the image?PhysicsPhysicsWhen something is reflected in a plane mirror, left becomes right and right becomes left. This is called lateral inversion.
19 How far away is the image? 1. Fix a plane mirror along the centre of a piece of A4 paper and draw around it.Place a pin as the object in front of the mirror.ILine up a ruler with the image of the pin and draw along the edge of the ruler on the paper. Repeat for three more positions of the ruler.3. Remove the mirror and ruler. The point where the lines cross is the image position. What are the distances between the mirror and theobject and its image?
20 The maths of reflection Fix a plane mirror to a piece of A5 paper and draw around it.Draw a normal line (at 90º) through the middle of the mirror outline.angle iUse a ray box to shine an incident ray at the mirror – plot the incident and reflected rays.angle rMeasure the angles of incidence [i] and reflection [r] and record the results.Repeat for another five angles of incidence.
21 Reflecting without mirrors Mirrors are good reflectors but not perfect - they give two reflections.Glass prisms are used instead of mirrors in good quality binoculars and other instruments.
22 Reflecting without mirrors Shine rays of light into a prism as shown in these ray diagrams.Copy and complete the ray diagrams using a ruler and pencil.Don’t forget to include arrows on your rays!
23 Using plane mirrors periscope submarines By positioning two plane mirrors at 45° to each other at either end of a tube we can make a ___________.periscopePeriscopes are used in _____________.submarines
24 1. Pale and shiny surfaces are good reflectors, Reflection summary1. Pale and shiny surfaces are good reflectors,dark and rough surfaces are not.2. The image in a plane mirror is laterally inverted.3. The image is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front.4. The image in a plane mirror is the same size as the object.5. The law of reflection is:angle of incidence (i) = angle of reflection (r)
25 8K Light What is light? Reflection Refraction Colour Contents8K LightWhat is light?ReflectionRefractionColourSummary activities
26 This causes the light to bend or refract. Bending lightThe speed of light waves depends on the material they are travelling through.air = fastestglass = slowerdiamond = slowestIf light waves enter a different material (e.g. travel from glass into air) the speed changes.This causes the light to bend or refract.glassair
28 Refraction investigation 1. Place a rectangular glass block on a sheet of paper and draw around it.angle iangle r2. Draw a normal line (at 90º) along the top surface of the block.Shine rays of light with incident [i] angles of 30º, 60º and 0º into the block, making sure they all hit where the normal line crosses the glass surface.Measure angle ‘r’ each time and record the results.
29 Refraction investigation – results Record the results of the refraction investigation in a table:Write two ‘rules’ to describe:what happens to the ray as it enters the glass;what happens to the ray as it re-enters the air.
30 What happens in refraction: air to glass When light is refracted as it travels from air to glass:angle of incidence > angle of refraction i > ri > rAs the light ray travels from air into glass it moves towards the normal.airglassIn general, when light rays move from a less dense medium (air) to a more dense medium (glass) they ‘bend’ towards the normal.
31 What happens in refraction: glass to air When light is refracted as it travels from air to glass:angle of incidence < angle of refraction i < rAs the light ray travels from glass into air it moves away from the normal.airglassIn general, when light rays travel from a more dense medium (glass) to a less dense medium (air) they ‘bend’ away from the normal.i < rIf the two surfaces of the block are parallel, then the ray at the start is parallel to the ray at the end.
32 Refraction – angle of incidence = 0° What happens to light travelling from air through a glass block when the angle of incidence is 0°? i = 0°When the angle of incidence is 0 the light ray is not deviated from its path.airglassundeviated light ray
34 Refraction – revision tip To remember what happens to light when it is refracted, think of the word:TAGAGATowards (normal)AirGlassAway (from normal)
35 Travelling through different materials If you were running along a beach and then ran into the water when would you be moving slower – in the water or on the sand?In the water.In a similar way, as light moves from one medium to another of different density, the speed of light changes.Do you think light moves faster or slower in a more dense medium?Light moves slower through a more dense medium.
36 The speed of light in different media Light travels at 300,000 km/s in a vacuum.As light enters denser media, the speed of light decreases.From this bar chart, which material do you think is denser, Perspex or water?Perspex must be denser than water because light travels more slowly through Perspex than water.
37 Why does light change direction? Imagine a car driving from the road into a muddy field.In the muddy field it slows down as there is more friction.mudroadIf it enters the field at an angle then the front tyres hit the mud at different times.tyre 2tyre 1Tyre 1 hits the mud first and will move more slowly than tyre 2. This causes the car to turn towards the normal.When the car leaves the mud for the road, tyre 1 hits the road before tyre 2 and this causes the car to turn away from the normal.
38 Why does light change direction? If the car approached the muddy field at an angle of incidence of 0° then both front tyres would hit the mud at the same time.The tyres would have the same speed relative to each other so the direction of the car would not change, it would just slow down.
39 Why does light change direction? When light hits a medium at an angle to the n_____ the light ‘bends’ in a similar way to that described for the car in a muddy field.ormalPart of the light ray s____ d____ before the rest and this causes the change of d_______.lowsownirectionIf the light enters a new medium along the normal(i.e. angle of incidence = 0) then it does not ‘bend’ because all of the light ray slows down at the s___ t___.ameime
40 Effects of refraction Many visual effects are caused by refraction. This ruler appears bent because the light from one end of the ruler has been refracted, but light from the other end has travelled in a straight line.Would the ruler appear more or less bent if the water was replaced with glass?
41 Apparent depthThe rays of light from a stone get bent (refracted) as they leave the water.Your brain assumes these rays of light have travelled in straight lines.imageYour brain forms an image at the place where it thinks the rays have come from – the stone appears to be higher than it really is.actual location
42 The Archer fishThe Archer fish is a predator that shoots jets of water at insects near the surface of the water, e.g. on a leaf.The Archer fish allows for the refraction of light at the surface of the water when aiming at the prey.image of preyprey locationThe fish does not aim at the refracted image it sees but at a location where it knows the prey to be.
43 Magic coinsPlace a coin in the bottom of a bowl and clamp an empty cardboard tube so that it points above the coin.Gradually add water to the bowl and watch the coin through the tube float up – can you explain this?
44 1. When light bends this is called refraction. Refraction summary1. When light bends this is called refraction.2. Refraction happens because the light changes speed.3. When light enters a more dense medium (e.g. glass), it bends towards the normal.4. When light enters a less dense medium [e.g. air], it bends away from the normal.5. If the incident ray hits a surface at 0º, no refraction occurs.Remember that the angle of reflection [r] and the angle of refraction [r] use the same symbol.In reflection: i = rIn refraction: i r
45 8K Light What is light? Reflection Refraction Colour Contents8K LightWhat is light?ReflectionRefractionColourSummary activities
46 Life without colour Imagine you could only see in black and white. How might this affect your life?Would it rule out any careers for you?What dangers could there be?Working in groups, each person has two minutes to give a presentation to the rest of the group about their ideas.
47 Splitting white light with a prism Shine a ray of bright white light at a prism and move the prism until colours appear.Draw a diagram to show what you observed.
49 Splitting white light into colours A prism splits a ray of white light into a spectrum of colours.This is known as dispersion.When white light is split, the colours always follow the same order.Use this phrase to remember the order of colours:Richard Of York Gave Battle In VainY
50 DispersionEach of the colours of the spectrum [ROYGBIV] has a slightly different wave. What is the difference?Each colour has a different wavelength ().
51 Which colour is refracted the most? DispersionThe different colours of light have different wavelengths, this means they are bent (refracted) by different amounts.Which colour is refracted the most?Red light is refracted least because it has the longest wavelength.Violet light is refracted the most because it has the shortest wavelength.
53 Recombining coloursRemember how white light can be dispersed to give a spectrum of colours?To do the opposite – two prisms are needed!A similar effect can also be seen using a colour wheel (or Newton’s disc).
54 Newton’s discColour in a paper or card circle with the colours of the spectrum.Using string or a pencil spin your disc around.What did you observe?What do you predict you will see?What does this tell you?
56 Seeing colours How do you see non-luminous objects such as a book? You see a non-luminous object when light hits the object and is then reflected into your eyes.So how do we see different colours?Why does a red dress look red?Why does a green apple look green?
58 Primary and secondary colours Colours are made by mixing other colours of light.There are three primary colours of light used to make all other colours. What are these colours?yellowredgreenThe three primary colours of light are red, green and blue.magentacyanblueThe colours made by mixing two primary colours are calledthe secondary colours – magenta, yellow and cyan.
60 Seeing red Why does a red snooker ball look red in white light? The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum except red.Only red light is reflected into your eye, so the snooker ball appears red.White light is made up of a spectrum of colours.
61 Seeing green Why does a green snooker ball look green in white light? The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum except green.Only green light is reflected into your eye, so the snooker ball appears green.
62 Seeing black Why does a black snooker ball look black in white light? The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum.No light is reflected into your eye, so the snooker ball appears black.
63 Seeing white Why does a snooker ball look in white light? white white The snooker ball does not absorb any of the colours of the spectrum.The whole spectrum of light is reflected into your eye, so the snooker ball appears white.
64 Why does a magenta ball look magenta in white light? Seeing magentaWhy does a magenta ball look magenta in white light?The snooker ball absorbs all the colours of the spectrum except red and blue.Red and blue light are reflected into your eye, so the snooker ball appears magenta.
65 Which colour is reflected? Which colours of light are reflected by these clothes?
66 Seeing different colours What colours are absorbed by this frog’s skin? What colours are reflected into your eyes?This part of the skin absorbs all the colours of the spectrum except red, and so reflects red light.This part of the skin absorbs all the colours of the spectrum and none are reflected.
67 Seeing different colours What colours are absorbed by this flower?What colours are reflected into your eyes?This part of the flower absorbsall colours except red and green.It reflects red and green light,and so appears yellow.This part of the flower absorbs no colours.It reflects them alland so appears white.
68 Using coloured filters Filters let certain colours of light pass through, but absorb all other colours.Using different coloured filters placed in front of your eye, look around the classroom and see what effect they have on your vision.objectfilter
69 Red, blue and green filters A red filter absorbs all colours……apart from red light.A blue filter absorbs all colours……apart from blue light.A green filter absorbs all colours...…apart from green light.
70 Magenta, cyan and yellow filters A magenta filter absorbs all colours……apart from red and blue.A cyan filter absorbs all colours……apart from green and blue.A yellow filter absorbs all colours...…apart from red and green.
72 Seeing colours in coloured light Why do colours look different in different coloured light?Consider a red ball in red light.The red light shines on the ball.The red ball reflects the red light and so appears red.
73 Seeing colours in coloured light What colour does a red ball appear in green light?The green light shines on the ball.The red ball only reflects red light and so it absorbs the green light.So in green light, this ball does not reflect any light and so appears black.
74 Seeing colours in coloured light What colour does a green ball appear in blue light?The blue light shines on the ball.The green ball only reflects green light and so it absorbs the blue light.So in blue light, this ball does not reflect any light and so appears black.
75 Seeing colours in coloured light What happens when using a coloured filter which lets through more than one type of light?What will a red ball look like in magenta light?The magenta light, which is a mixture of red and blue light, shines on the ball.The red ball only reflects red light and so absorbs the blue light.So in magenta light, this ball reflects the red light and appears red.
76 Coloured light activity – instructions The next two slides include a girl wearing a t-shirt and trousers.The girl is standing in a different coloured light each time. The colour of this light is written at the top of the slide.The aim of each activity is to decide what colours the girls’ clothes would appear in each type of coloured light.Drag the correct t-shirt and trousers onto the girl to find out if you have selected the correct colours.
77 Coloured light activity 1 Drag and drop activityDecide which colours the girl’s t-shirt and trousers will appear in green light and drag the clothes that show these colours onto the girl.If correct, the clothes will stay in place; if incorrect, the clothes snap back to their original position.
78 Coloured light activity 2 Drag and drop activityDecide which colours the girl’s t-shirt and trousers will appear in magenta light and drag the clothes that show these colours onto the girl.If correct, the clothes will stay in place; if incorrect, the clothes snap back to their original position.
79 Flag colours in different coloured light How would the colours in this flag appear under these lighting conditions?red lightgreen lightblue light
80 What colour does it appear? What colour does each object appear under the given lighting conditions?Object (Colour)Colour FilterAppearancered ballredblueblue bookgreenmagentagreen applecyanred and blue tieredblackblackbluegreenblackred and black
81 8K Light What is light? Reflection Refraction Colour Contents8K LightWhat is light?ReflectionRefractionColourSummary activities
82 absorption – When light is taken in by a material. Glossaryabsorption – When light is taken in by a material.dispersion – The separating of the colours in light,e.g. when white light passes through a prism.image – A copy of an object formed when light is reflected from a mirror.light – A form of energy that is detected by the eyes.law of reflection – When light is reflected, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.prism – A block of glass, usually triangular, which separates the colours in light.reflection – The bouncing back of light from a surface.refraction – The bending of light when it passes into a different medium.spectrum – The range of colours that make up white light.