May 3. 2010 Dr. Schultz, Dr. Owen, Dr. Ryan, Dr. Stephens
Is it a pre-referral process? Is it a service delivery model? Is it a way to identify SLD?
Response to intervention integrates assessment and intervention within a multi- level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavioral problems. With RTI, schools use data to identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provide evidence- based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on a student’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities or other disabilities.
Four Major Developments 1. The first of these developments is the longstanding concern about how LD is defined and identified. 2. The passage of the reauthorization the IDEIA of 2004 and No Child Left Behind (2001), an increased emphasis has been placed on providing early intervention for struggling students and to reduce the numbers of students served in special education programs
3. A third reason has been the emphasis on reading in both research and policy. (i.e., Reading First, SSI) 4. Finally, an increased policy emphasis on providing all students access to scientifically based instruction delivered in core academic subjects by a highly qualified teacher has required educators to create systems of support that share responsibility for students with LD or at risk for LD
Provide the earliest intervention for students who struggle. Traditional models have historically required students to fail for a period of time prior to receiving any specialized assistance, often referred to as the “wait-to-fail” model. An RTI process can quickly identify students who need extra help before falling too far behind their peers.
Provides critical information to educators about the instructional needs of the students and links them to evidenced-based interventions. This information will be particularly valuable for students who do not respond to increasing levels of support and are ultimately referred for a comprehensive evaluation and/or special education consideration.
Builds a culture of collaboration among administrative staff, teachers, interventionists and parents by sharing responsibility and accountability for student learning.
Use screening data to reduce bias in the special education referral process by decreasing the reliance on teacher-based referrals to data- based referrals. This has the potential to reduce the overall number of students referred for special education services, reduce the over- identification of minority students in special education, and reduce the number of students being referred whose problem was not receiving adequate instruction.
While the potential benefits of the use of an RTI model are clear, school districts have many questions as they move to large-scale implementation How many tiers of instruction are needed for an RTI process? How will students move from tier to tier? Which approach is best for our school, the problem-solving model or standardized protocol model? How does RTI apply to secondary students? What are the personnel needs of the school to fully implement RTI? How will data be collected and student progress monitored? How will “non-response to intervention” be determined? When should a student be referred for a comprehensive assessment?
While schools have considerable flexibility (e.g., number of tiers, length of time at each tier, assessment tools, instructional strategies, etc.) in determining how RTI will be implemented at their particular school, in order to build a durable and sustaining system of RTI, the features described below are essential:
Universal Screenings. Screenings take place by reviewing all students recent performance on state or district tests or by administering an academic screening (e.g., curriculum-based measurement) to all students in a given grade. Related behaviors (e.g., attendance, tardiness, truancy, disciplinary contacts, nurse visits, etc.) may also serve as screening data and help identify students who may require additional support.
High-quality classroom instruction. High quality instruction is delivered by qualified general education teachers in general education settings. The quality of the classroom instruction can be measured by comparing student achievement across different classrooms at the same grade level. Instruction and curriculum is grounded in scientific, research and have been proven to be effective for most students
Targeted research-based instruction and interventions. Research-based interventions go beyond adapting and accommodating the current curriculum and are characterized by making a systematic change in delivery of instruction and/or support that have proven effectiveness in addressing the presenting problem.
Continuous progress monitoring. In an RTI model, general educators assume an active role in the assessment and monitoring of classroom performance of students at regular intervals. Progress monitoring is the scientifically based practice used to assess student performance and evaluate the effectiveness of classroom, targeted, and intensive instruction and interventions. Progress monitoring is a fundamental and essential component of the RTI process.
A scientifically validated form of progress monitoring is Curriculum Based measurement or CBM. Using CBM allows teachers to regularly assess student performance using brief, simple, global measures. Consequently, the obtained data is utilized to make instructional decisions.
Decision making rules. Critical to the RTI process is the formation of guidelines for each school to decide which students are not making sufficient progress or responding to interventions, when to enter or exit tiers, and when to refer a student for a comprehensive evaluation or consideration for special education.
Fidelity Measures. Fidelity measures are in place to ensure that interventions are designed and implemented consistently and for a sufficient length of time to reliably measure a student’s response to the intervention.
Data-Based Decision Making. Decisions are made in an RTI process by using and analyzing information collected routinely and purposefully to identify status, need for change, and effects of interventions. Informed educational decisions are made using sound data and professional judgment reducing the chances for error and bias in treatment.
LEARN Act :The Literacy Education for All, Results for the Nation (LEARN) Act, which was recently introduced into the House and Senate, is a comprehensive literacy bill promoting reading and writing across the K- 12 levels and in all disciplines. (Replace Reading 1 st )
(ix) using differentiated instructional approaches, including-- (I) individual and small group instruction; and (II) professional development, curriculum development, and classroom instruction; (x) applying the principles of universal design for learning; (xi) using age appropriate screening assessments, diagnostic assessments, formative assessments, and summative assessments to identify individual child learning needs, to inform instruction, and to monitor student progress and the effects of instruction over time;
(vi) using differentiated instructional approaches, including individual, small group, and classroom-based instruction and discussion; viii) providing time and opportunities for systematic and intensive instruction, intervention, and practice to supplement regular instruction, which can be provided inside and outside the classroom as well as during and outside regular school hours; http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F?c111:1:./temp/~c1115ezyJ9:e11832: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F?c111:1:./temp/~c1115ezyJ9:e11832
IDEA Reauthorization –RTI as a main criterion?