4 IDEA (2004) and RtILanguage related to RtI was written into law with the 2004 reauthorization of IDEASchool districts are no longer required to take into consideration whether a student has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in determining eligibility for learning disability services; “wait to fail” modelMay use alternative approach (RtI) to determine if student responds first to scientifically research-based classroom instruction and then to targeted interventions.Reading Today, vol. 26 (4), February/March 2009
5 What is Response to Intervention? An early intervening strategy that carries dual meaning in PA.A comprehensive, multi-tiered, standards aligned strategy to enable early identification and intervention for K-12 students at academic or behavioral risk.May be considered as one alternative to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities; a LEA may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedure (IDEA 2004).PDE, 2008
6 The Goal of RtIThe goal of RtI is to improve student achievement by monitoring student responses to a series of increasingly intense interventions matched to the instructional need and level of the student.Avoid having students ‘fall through the cracks.’PDE, 2008
7 RtI is a (an)Data-driven process to improve reading and math achievement within a standards-aligned instructional system.General education led effort implemented within a general education system coordinated with all other services including Special Education, ESL, Title I and others.System to provide instructional intervention in reading and math immediately upon student need.
8 RtI is a (an)Alternative approach to the diagnosis of a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) instead of only using the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model.Process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures.PDE, 2008
9 IRA Commission on RtI: Guiding Principles Principle 1: InstructionPrinciple 2: Responsive Teaching andDifferentiationPrinciple 3: AssessmentPrinciple 4: CollaborationPrinciple 5: Systemic and ComprehensivePrinciple 6: Expertise
10 IRA Commission on RtI: Guiding Principles and Webinar Materials This link contains information about upcoming webinars as well as the archived Powerpoints from previous webinars.
11 Core Characteristics of RtII Standards-aligned instruction- all students receive high quality, research-based instruction.Universal screening- all students are screened to determine academic and behavior status against grade level benchmarks.Shared ownership- all staff assume an active role in students’ assessment and instruction.
12 Core Characteristics of RtII Data-Based Decision Making- Student performance data is analyzed to guide school decisions on instructional changes, choices of interventions, and appropriate rates of progress.Progress monitoringBenchmark and outcome assessmentTiered Intervention and Service Delivery SystemResearch- based interventionsFlexible groupingFidelity implementationPM- continuous monitoring of performance and use of data to determine intervention effectiveness.BMA- progress is assessed periodically throughout year against grade level benchmarks and standards
13 Core Characteristics of RtI Parental Engagement- parents receive information regarding their child’s needs including:A description of the specific intervention and who is delivering instruction.Clearly stated intervention goals and academic progress expected for their child.Regular progress or lack of progress reports.The right to request a special education evaluation at any time.PDE, 2008
17 Tier OneWithin Tier 1, all students receive high-quality, scientifically based instruction provided by qualified personnel to ensure that their difficulties are not due to inadequate instruction. All students are screened on a periodic basis to establish an academic and behavioral baseline and to identify struggling learners. The length of time for this step can vary, but it generally should not exceed 8 weeks. During that time, student progress is monitored. Students not showing adequate progress are moved to Tier 2.High-quality, effective standards- aligned instruction designed to engage and challenge all students.Clear and high expectationsfor student learning andbehavior.On-going assessmentHighly qualifiedpersonnel8 week monitoring period forinterventionsHoward, 2009; PaTTAN, 2009; PDE, 2008; rtinetwork.org
18 Tier TwoStudents not making adequate progress in the regular classroom in Tier 1 are provided with increasingly intensive instruction matched to their needs. Intensity varies across group size, frequency and duration of intervention, and level of training of the professionals providing instruction or intervention. These services and interventions are provided in small-group settings in addition to instruction in the general curriculum. A longer period of time may be required for this tier, but it should generally not exceed a grading period. Students who continue to show too little progress at this level of intervention are then considered for more intensive interventions as part of Tier 3.Academic and behavioral strategies, methodologies, and practices for some students who are not making expected progress.Students who are at risk for academic and behavioral failureSupplemental small group instruction; use of specialistsStandard treatment protocolOn-going assessmentScientifically research-basedinterventionsUp to 8-12 weeksHoward, 2009; PaTTAN, 2009; PDE, 2008; RTInetwork.org
19 Tier ThreeAt this level, students who are significantly below established grade level benchmarks or who demonstrate significant difficulties with behavioral and social competence. Individuals receive individualized, intensive interventions. Students who do not achieve the desired level of progress in response to these targeted interventions are then referred for a comprehensive evaluation and considered for eligibility for special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA 2004). The data collected during Tiers 1, 2, and 3 are included and used to make the eligibility decision.Intensive Interventions for a Few StudentsIntensive scientifically researched-based interventionsStandard protocol and problem solving approachesSmall intensive, flexible groupsOn-going assessment and decision makingHighly qualified personnelUp to 8-12 weeksHoward, 2009; PaTTAN, 2009; PDE, 2008; RTInetwork.org
20 Types of Intervention Approaches The two main types of decision-making approaches include standard protocol and problem-solving.Standard Protocol ApproachSame approach for each studentInterventions chosen from approved listInstructional decisions follow a standard protocolReduces teacher variablesProblem-Solving ApproachIndividualized approachDesign targeted interventions for each at-risk studentUtilized problem-solving stepsInput from varied professionals
21 Response to Intervention: A Tiered Approach to Instructing All Students A Video Summary of the Three Tiers Response to Intervention: A Tiered Approach to Instructing All Students
22 The RtI Implementation Process RtII implementation is a complex, multi-year, recursive process that requires the realignment and reengineering of the school infrastructure.Ensures that while each school’s RtI model is unique, all use the same process to customize the framework:Assess school/district readinessEstablish prioritiesDevelop a multi-year implementation planImplement RtIMonitor and evaluate RtI implementationPDE, 2008
23 RtII Team Approach Principal Classroom Teachers School Psychologist A benefit to RtI is the flexible nature of the framework. One commonality is the team building that serves as the basis for all decision-making and planning. The following list includes, but is not limited to stakeholders involved in building level team planning:PrincipalClassroom TeachersSchool PsychologistSpeech and Language TherapistInstructional Support Personnel; special educationParentsSchool CounselorReading Specialist and/or Literacy Coach
24 ReferencesBrown-Chidsey,R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the Classroom: Guidelines and Recipes for Success. NY; New York: Guilford Press.Howard, M. (2009). RTI From All Sides. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.www. rtinetwork.org
25 Powerpoints: RtI RTI overview Powerpoint presentation from IRA- New Roles for Reading Teachers