Presentation on theme: "32 An Age of Limits The Nixon Administration"— Presentation transcript:
1 32 An Age of Limits The Nixon Administration QUIT32C H A P T E RAn Age of LimitsCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1The Nixon AdministrationMAPSECTION2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHSECTION3The Ford and Carter YearsSECTION4Environmental ActivismVISUAL SUMMARY
2 HOME32C H A P T E RAn Age of LimitsCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the political, social, and economic events of the 1970s and the Nixon Administration
3 32 An Age of Limits I N T E R A C T HOME32C H A P T E RAn Age of LimitsI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YThe date is August 9, You are serving your country as an honor guard at the White House. As a member of the military, you’ve always felt patriotic pride in your government. Now the highest officer of that government, President Richard M. Nixon, is stepping down in disgrace. The trust you once placed in your leaders has been broken.In what ways can a president misuse power?Examine the Issues• What are some powers granted to the president?• What systems exist to protect against abuse of power?• How can a president lose or restore the nation’s trust?
4 32 An Age of Limits The United States The World continued . . . HOME C H A P T E RAn Age of LimitsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1968 Richard M. Nixon is elected president.1969 Astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first person to walk on the moon.1970 America celebrates the first Earth Day.1972 Nixon visits China and the Soviet Union. Nixon is reelected.1972 China gives the U.S. two pandas. Terrorists kill eleven Israeli athletes at the XX Olympiad in Munich.1973 Energy crisis begins, and gasoline prices soar.1973 War breaks out in the Middle East when seven Arab states attack Israel on Yom Kippur.1974 Vice President Gerald R. Ford becomes president after the Watergate scandal forces President Nixon to resign.1976 President Jimmy Carter is elected president. Americans celebrate the nation’s bicentennial.continued . . .
5 32 An Age of Limits The United States The World HOME TIME LINE C H A P T E RAn Age of LimitsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1977 The movie Saturday Night Fever inspires disco fashion.1978 Egyptian and Israeli leaders meet and sign the Camp David Accords with President Carter.1979 A nuclear power accident occurs at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania.1979 Ayatollah Khomeini seizes power in Iran.
6 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEKEY IDEAPresident Richard M. Nixon attempts to move the country in a more conservative direction and to ease Cold War tensions throughout the world.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPresident Richard M. Nixon tried to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control.American leaders of the early 1970s laid the foundations for the broad conservative base today.TERMS & NAMES• Richard M. Nixon• New Federalism• revenue sharing• Southern strategy• OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)• Family Assistance Plan• SALT I Treaty• stagflation• realpolitik• détenteASSESSMENT
8 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. List the policies of Richard Nixon that promoted change and those that slowed it down.Promoted ChangeSlowed ChangePolicies:Policies:Revenue sharing programImpounded federal fundsFamily Assistance PlanAbolished Office of Economic OpportunityChina visitOpposed school busingSoviet Union visitAppointed conservatives to the Supreme CourtSALT I Treatycontinued . . .
9 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. What were the effects of the Arab OPEC oil embargo on the United States?ANSWERIncreased fuel prices, fuel conservation, inflation, factories and businesses closedcontinued . . .
10 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. Why was the timing of Nixon’s foreign policy achievements particularly important? Relate his achievements to other events.ANSWERNixon’s achievements helped him win reelection in 1972.continued . . .
11 The Nixon Administration S E C T I O N1The Nixon AdministrationMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. In your opinion, did Nixon’s policy of détente help solve the country’s major foreign policy problems? Think About:• the definition and origin of détente• the effect of détente on U.S. dealings with Communist countries• the effect of détente on the American publicANSWERYes: improved relations between the Soviet Union and China; enhanced Nixon’s world image; opened up diplomatic and economic relations with the ChineseNo: did nothing to help the situation in VietnamEnd of Section 1
12 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall S E C T I O N2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEARichard Nixon’s involvement in the cover-up of a campaign burglary forces him to resign from office—the only president to do so.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
13 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall S E C T I O N2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPresident Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal forced him to resign from office.The Watergate scandal raised questions of public trust that still affect how the public and media skeptically view politicians.TERMS & NAMES• H. R. Haldeman• John Ehrlichman• John Mitchell• Committee to Reelect the President• Saturday Night Massacre• impeachment• John Sirica• WatergateASSESSMENT
14 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall GRAPHHOME2S E C T I O NWatergate: Nixon’s DownfallASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the key events of the Watergate scandal.EventMay Senate investigatesOctober 1973 Saturday Night MassacreAugust President Nixon resigns.June 1972August 1974June Watergate break-inJune John Dean testifies before Senate.July Judiciary committee votes to impeach Nixon.continued . . .
15 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall S E C T I O N2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. If Nixon had admitted to and apologized for the Watergate break-in, how might subsequent events have been different? Think About:• the extent of the cover-up• the impact of the cover-up• Nixon’s public imageANSWERNixon’s public image would not have been as badly damaged; Americans might have respected him for his honesty; he probably would have lost some of the American people’s trust.continued . . .
16 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall S E C T I O N2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. How did the Watergate scandal create a constitutional crisis?ANSWERDuring the scandal, Nixon abused his power and obstructed justice. The crisis centered on the issue of how the nation would handle a president’s alleged criminal misconduct.continued . . .
17 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall S E C T I O N2Watergate: Nixon’s DownfallGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT4. Do you think that Nixon would have been forced to resign if the tapes had not existed?ANSWERYes: There may have been other ways of bringing the pertinent information to light.No: Nixon could have continued to maintain his innocence, and without proper evidence, he would not have been impeached.End of Section 2
18 The Ford and Carter Years S E C T I O N3The Ford and Carter YearsHOMEKEY IDEAIn the wake of Watergate, Presidents Ford and Carter try to restore faith in America’s leadership as they battle the worst economic crisis in decades.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
19 The Ford and Carter Years S E C T I O N3The Ford and Carter YearsHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Ford and Carter administrations attempted to remedy the nation’s worst economic crisis in decades.Maintaining a stable national economy has remained a top priority for every president since Ford and Carter.TERMS & NAMES• National Energy Act• Gerald R. Ford• Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini• Camp David Accords• Jimmy Carter• human rightsASSESSMENT
20 The Ford and Carter Years HOME3S E C T I O NThe Ford and Carter YearsASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the major events of the Ford and Carter administrations.March Anwar el-Sadat and Begin sign peace treaty.1975 Helsinki Accords signed.Dec Soviets invade Afghanistan.Event TwoEvent OneEvent FourEvent SixEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent Seven1974 Ford pardons Nixon.1977 U.S. and Panama sign canal treaties.Nov. 4, Iranians seize U.S. hostages.1980 Almost 14 percent inflation.continued . . .
21 The Ford and Carter Years S E C T I O N3The Ford and Carter YearsHOMEASSESSMENT2. Do you think that Ford made a good decision in pardoning Nixon? Explain why or why not.ANSWERGood Decision: Ford needed to prevent the country from enduring a trial and restore confidence in the presidency.Bad Decision: Nixon should have been held accountable; he never publicly admitted guilt.continued . . .
22 The Ford and Carter Years S E C T I O N3The Ford and Carter YearsHOMEASSESSMENT3. How were the actions taken by Presidents Ford and Carter to address the country’s economic downturn similar? How did they differ?ANSWERBoth emphasized energy conservation and battled Congress; Ford put more emphasis on voluntary citizen action, whereas Carter emphasized government action.continued . . .
23 The Ford and Carter Years S E C T I O N3The Ford and Carter YearsHOMEASSESSMENT4. Do you agree with President Carter that human rights concerns should steer U.S. foreign policy? Think About:• the responsibility of promoting human rights• the loss of good relations with certain countries• the collapse of détente with the Soviet UnionANSWERAgree: U.S. has a duty to stand up for human rights.Disagree: Too strict a policy might alienate allies.End of Section 3
24 Environmental Activism S E C T I O N4Environmental ActivismHOMEKEY IDEAAmericans, struck by their sense of limitations, begin to address a growing number of environmental concerns.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
25 Environmental Activism S E C T I O N4Environmental ActivismHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring the 1970s, Americans strengthened their efforts to address the nation’s environmental problems.The nation today continues to struggle to balance environmental concerns with industrial growth.TERMS & NAMES• Rachel Carson• Three Mile Island• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)• Earth Day• environmentalistASSESSMENT
26 Environmental Activism S E C T I O N4Environmental ActivismHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five events that describe how concern for the environment grew in the United States.Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, 1962.People struggle to balance environmental with economic concerns.Concern for the environment grew in the United States.In 1970, the first Earth Day is held.Nixon creates the EPA in 1970.Three Mile Island accident in 1979 raises concerns about nuclear power.continued . . .
27 Environmental Activism S E C T I O N4Environmental ActivismHOMEASSESSMENT2. How much should the United States rely on nuclear power as a source of energy? Think About:• the safety of nuclear power• the alternatives to nuclear power• U.S. energy demandsANSWERSupporters may say that nuclear power should be used, since it is cleaner than coal or oil and is plentiful and cheap.Opponents may say that nuclear power is dangerous, nuclear waste is difficult to contain, and the risks outweigh the benefits.End of Section 4