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Lesson 19.  Our bodies are comprised of cells. These cells make tissues for example smooth muscle tissue. The tissues form organs for example the stomach.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 19.  Our bodies are comprised of cells. These cells make tissues for example smooth muscle tissue. The tissues form organs for example the stomach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 19

2  Our bodies are comprised of cells. These cells make tissues for example smooth muscle tissue. The tissues form organs for example the stomach. The organs make up different body systems for such as the Cardiovascular System.  CELLS---->TISSUES---->ORGANS---- >BODY SYSTEMS  Cardiovascular, Nervous, Immune, Respiratory, Skeletal, Muscular, Endocrine, Digestive, Integumentary, Urinary

3  The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients, gases, hormones, and cellular waste products.  The cardiovascular system consist of blood, blood vessels, and the heart.  Blood- carries gases (oxygen), and nutrients through out the body. Two types of Blood Cells Red and White. Red Blood Cells are responsible for carrying oxygen through out the body by connecting to hemoglobin.

4  Blood Vessels-Broken into 3 kinds veins, arteries, and capillaries. Veins carry blood to the heart while arteries carry blood away from the heart. Artery blood is oxygenated while vein blood is not. Capillaries are the transport vehicle that allow nutrients to pass from the blood to the body cells.

5  BLOOD PASSAGE: Heart is broken into 4 chambers Right Atria, and Ventricle and Left Atria and Ventricle.  Blood From Cells Enter Right Atria---->Right Ventricle---->lungs to receive oxygen---- >Left Atria---->Right Ventricle---->Aorta. The aorta is the artery that pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

6  The nervous system is responsible for carrying message from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body for example remove hand from hot stove.  The nervous system is comprised of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that branch out to muscles, organs, and glands.

7  Brain-Mass of nerve tissue that acts as the control center of the body. The two parts of the brain associated with the nervous system are the cerebrum and cerebellum. The cerebrum controls ones ability to memorize, think and learn. The cerebellum controls muscle activity. For example a persons ability to catch a ball.

8  Spinal Cord- The spinal cord are nerves that extend downward from the brain. They allow messages to go from the brain to the nerves that reach through the body.  Nerve Cells are known as neurons. Neurons receive message through fibers known as dendrites. The dendrites then send the message down the axon where other dendrites from neurons can receive the message

9  BRAIN---->SPINAL CORD---->NERVES ---->NEURONS---->Dendrites-axon-other neuron dendrites  Sensory Neurons receive impulses from organs while Motor Neurons receive impulses from muscles and glands.

10  The immune system is responsible for removing and combating harmful organisms known as pathogens in the blood.  The immune system is composed of the lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, thymus gland, and spleen.

11  Lymph is a clear liquid that surrounds cells. The lymph will filter pathogens to the lymph nodes where the nodes can destroy the pathogens. As a second line of defense the items in lymph nodes gets filtered again through the spleen.  The thymus glad changes white blood cells into T Cells that will kill pathogens.

12  The responsibility of the respiratory system is to provide the body cells with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide that cells make as waste.  The respiratory system consists of nose, mouth, epiglottis, trachea, lungs.

13  When you breath in through your mouth or nose air goes through the pharnyx to the trachea. The trachea is a tube that moves air into the bronchi and lungs. The bronchi are two tubes that lead into the lungs. Once inside each lung little vessel like structures know as bronchioles feed air to the alveoli (sac like structures). The alveoli exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with blood capillaries.

14  Nose---->Pharynx---->Trachea---- >Bronchi ---->Lungs---->Bronchioles---->Alveoli

15  The skeletal system is responsible for creating a framework for the body that protects organs, produces blood, and works with muscles to create movement.  The skeletal system consist of bones, bone marrow, cartilage, ligaments, and joints.  Bone is the structural material of the skeletal system. Periosteum is thin tissue that covers the bone and contains nerves and blood vessesls.

16  Bone Marrow is soft tissue in the center of the bone where red and white blood cells are formed. These cells are then sent through the blood vessels that are in the periosteum.  Cartilage is soft connective tissue on the ends of bones that act as a cushion where bones meet.  Ligaments are tough fiber that connect bones to bones.  A joint is where two bones meet.

17  The muscular system is responsible for maintaining posture and allowing for movement.  The muscular system consists of the 600+ muscles in the bodies and tendons.  Muscles are divided into two main groups voluntary and involuntary muscles.  Voluntary muscles are muscles that you can control for example arm and leg muscles.  Involuntary muscles are muscles you can’t control such as digestive muscles.

18  Smooth Muscle: Is an involuntary muscle found in many internal organs like the stomach.  Skeletal Muscle: Are voluntary muscles that are attached to bones for example leg and arm muscles.  Cardiac Muscle: Specialized heart muscles that are capable of withstanding contractions generated by the nerve stimulation.  Tendon: Connects Bones to Muscles.

19  The endocrine system is responsible for creating and releasing hormones. Hormones control and regulate body functions such as puberty by carrying the message to particular body areas.  The endocrine systems consists of glands.  Glands: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas, Adrenal, Reproductive

20  Pituitary: Influences growth, metabolism, and reproductive systems. It’s located in the brain.  Thyroid: Produces thyroxin hormone that regulates metabolism and calcium balance in bones. It’s located in the throat area.  Parathyroid: Helps the thyroid gland control calcium and phosphorus build up. It’s located on the thyroid gland there are four of them.

21  Pancreas: Produces digestive enzymes and insulin. These enzymes aid in the digestion process by acting as a catalyst to speed up digestion. Insulin hormone regulates blood sugar.  Adrenal: Prepares the body to react in a time of stress and or emergency. It releases the hormone adrenaline.

22  The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food into nutrients that can be used the body. The digestive system allows nutrients to be absorbed by cells and waste to be removed  The digestive system consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and pancreas.

23  Once food is consumed via the mouth it starts to get broken down via saliva. From the mouth food enters the esophagus which connects the mouth to the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary muscle contractions that move the food through the esophagus. Once food is in the stomach juices and acids create chyme to break down the food. After about 4 hours of mulling in the stomach food gets passed to the small intestine.

24  The small intestine is where most digestion occurs and the most nutrients is received via absorption. While food is in the small intestine the liver releases bile that is stored in the gallbladder. The bile helps break down fat and toxins. The pancreas will also release enzymes into the small intestine to break down starches and proteins. Food will move from the small intestines into the large intestines.

25  Food that enters the large intestine means that is wasn’t digested fully and needs to be eliminated from the body. Once the large intestine fills in passes waste into the rectum to be released through the anus.  Mouth---->Esophagus---->Stomach---- >Small Intestine----> Large Intestine----> Rectum  Remember Fiber helps digestion occur easily in the intestines.

26  The integumentary system is responsible for protecting the body and allowing for survival functions.  The integumentary system consists of the skin, and hair/nail glands.

27  Skin is the largest organ in the body. Skin receives it’s color from Melanin Pigment.  Skin had two layers epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is the outer skin layer. The skin cells are constantly shedding. The dermis are inner skin cells that cover organs and create new epidermis skin cells.

28  Nails are made up of dead cells and keratin a protein that provide protection to nerves. Our nerves allow our fingers to perform fine motor skills such as tying shoes.  Hair is responsible for protecting the body from sun rays and regulating body temperature. An adult will have up to 200,000 hairs.

29  The urinary system is responsible for removing liquid wastes from the body and maintaining water balance.  The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladders, and urethra.  The kidneys filter blood and urine excreting waste. The ureters are tube like structures that connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder stores urine. During urination the urethra a tube like structure is filled with urine. It connects to the bladder and leads urine outside the body.

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