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Section 2 Jawless and Cartilaginous Fish

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1 Section 2 Jawless and Cartilaginous Fish
Chapter 39 Fish Section 2 Jawless and Cartilaginous Fish

2 Fish Adaptations Stream-lined body & muscular tail
Paired-fins allow fish to manuver Secrete mucus around body to help move in water and protect against infections Store lipids (fat) to help aid in buoyancy Use gills for gas exchange

3 Homeostasis Freshwater fish = hypertonic (higher concentration of solutes than the surrounding water- gain water) Saltwater fish = hypotonic (contain lower concentrations of solutes than their surroundings- lose water)


5 Sensory Functions Fish can sense light, chemicals, & sound
Some can sense electrical & magnetic fields Many fish can see in color, but most cartilaginous fish can not see in color

6 Sensory Functions Chemoreception- ability to detect chemicals in the environment Sharks have great sense of smell & taste Barbels- whisker-like organs near mouth

7 Barbels

8 Sensory Functions Lateral line- allows fish to sense vibration in the water Cartilagenous fish (sharks & rays)- ampullae of Lorenzini- detect weak electrical fields- help locate prey

9 Lateral Line

10 ampullae of Lorenzini

11 Jawless Fishes Hagfish & lamprey
Have an eel-like body, cartilaginous skeleton, and unpaired fins Hagfish live in oceans Lampreys live in freshwater

12 Hagfishes Bottom-dwellers in cold marine water, no jaws
Isotonic- same ion concentration as sea water Feed on small invertebrates or dead & dying fish Burrow in dead fish & consume internal organs

13 Hagfish

14 Lampreys ½ parasites, ½ free-living
Attaches to host with disk-shaped mouth After feeding, lampreys drop off & host may recover, bleed to death, or die from infection Fertilization occurs outside body (external fertilization)

15 Lamprey

16 Cartilaginous Fish Class Chondrichthyes
Sharks, skates, rays, & ratfish Cartilage- flexible, lightweight material made of cells surrounded by tough fibers of protein Skin is covered with placoid scales- feels like sandpaper

17 Sharks Whale shark- largest shark (60 feet)
Feed on plankton & floating plants & animals Filter water using gill rakers 6 to 20 rows of teeth that point inward

18 Whale Shark

19 Sharks One shark uses 20,000 teeth in a lifetime
Each tooth is shaped based-on diet

20 Great White Shark

21 Hammer Head Shark

22 Black-tip Reef Shark

23 Bull Shark

24 Lemon Shark

25 Tiger Shark

26 Rays & Skates Flatten-bodies with wing-like pectoral fins and whip-like tails Rays have diamond or disk-shaped bodies Skates have triangular bodies Bottom-dwellers Feed on crustaceans

27 Rays

28 Skates

29 Ratfishes Deep-water Have gill slits covered by a flap of skin
Some have a rat-like tail Feed on crustaceans or mollusks

30 Ratfish

31 Adaptions Gas exchange in gills
Some sharks need to constantly move in order for gas exchange to occur Rays usually take in water from ventral side, but when on bottom, they use spiracles located behind eye to draw in water

32 Adaptations Sharks have an oil in their liver called squalene oil that contributes to their buoyancy Convert ammonia to urea which is a less toxic waste

33 Reproduction Internal fertilization- male transfers sperm to female’s body No cartilaginous fish provides parental care once young are born


35 REVIEW!!! Identify three characteristics of fish that makes them well suited to aquatic life. Contrast the feeding behavior of hagfish to the feeding behavior of lampreys. Identify the advantages of internal fertilization vs. external fertilization.

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