Presentation on theme: "Review of Westward Expansion PUSH FACTORSPULL FACTORS Civil War Land Ethnic Factors Debt Law Government Incentives: --Pacific Railways Act: --Morrill Land."— Presentation transcript:
Review of Westward Expansion PUSH FACTORSPULL FACTORS Civil War Land Ethnic Factors Debt Law Government Incentives: --Pacific Railways Act: --Morrill Land Grant: --Homestead Act:.
Weather problems: drought, fire, sand storms, flood Falling Prices: crop prices had fallen—farmers would mortgage land to buy more land to produce more crops to compensate Debt: farmers often could not afford to make payments loans Railroads: main source of transportation—railroads take advantage of farmer by charging excessive prices for shipping. Need for cheaper money: Greenbacks were issued during the war, afterwards taken out of circulation and not backed by gold or silver—farmers who borrowed during war time had to now pay back loans in dollars worth more than the dollars they had borrowed. FARMER’S PROBLEMS
RAILROAD ABUSES Construction graft: charge more than actual cost Bribes: swindling investors and taxpayers, cheating on contracts and debt, secret agreements with middlemen (grain brokers and merchants) that allowed the railroad to control the storage prices and influence market prices of goods Stock watering: manipulating the stock—Jay Gould (railroad owner) Unfair pricing: hurt the small farmer long haul—by boat cheaper short haul—by train more expensive Use of rebates for large customers, but not for small farmers
THE GRANGE Patrons of Husbandry founded by Oliver Hudson Kelley Originally social group of farmers to provide social outlet and an educational forum for farm families which become known as the Grange Become politically involved especially fighting the railroads Grange taught members how to organize, set up a farmer’s alliance, and how to sponsor state legislation to regulate the railroads Granger Laws regulated mid-western railroads but ruled UNCONSTITUTIONAL by Wabash v. Illinois ICC—Interstate Commerce Act were federal laws that regulates commerce and trade
POPULISM: took place of Grange Leaders of alliance groups like the Farmer’s Alliance and Southern Alliance realize that to make far-reaching changes they need a larger base of political power Populism—movement of the people Populist party takes the place of the Grange, western and southern farmers, some low wage laborers Reform based party— demand for changes to improve conditions and help with debt Omaha Platform: call for increase in money supply, graduate income tax, federal loan program, secret ballot to end fraudulent voting, 8 hour workday, farmer’s cooperative and restrictions on immigration Populist party’s programs are eventually adopted by Democratic Party
FREE SILVER CRUSADE Panic of 1893—nation enters a recession. WHY? farmers overextended with debt, railroads construction had expanded faster than markets (many RR companies go bankrupt), government’s gold supply had thinned, people panicked and traded paper money for gold, stock price fell rapidly, price of silver plunged causing silver mines to close, 15000 business and 500 banks close Greenbacks (paper money) should be issued based on silver and gold in reserve
1896 election: Republican party nominates William McKinley (gold standard) while the Democratic party nominated William Jennings Bryan (free silver or bimetallism). Populists were undecided on what to do—decided to back William Jennings and nominate a different Vice President from the Democratic party BRYAN AND END OF POPULISTS
“Cross of Gold Speech” by William Jennings Bryan (Democratic and Populist nominee) McKinley wins election, Populism collapses Legacy of Populism: 1.message that down-trodden common man could organize and have a political impact 2.idea of constant reform is the responsibility of the government
You will need your own paper for today’s activity! Copy and complete the cause and effect chart on Populism Copy and complete the Goldbugs v. Silverites chart Copy the review questions and answer!
GOLD BUGSSILVERITES Who they were ______________ and ___________________ ________________ and _______________ What they wanted Gold standard ________ money in circulation Bimetallism ________ money in circulation Why Loans would be ______ in __________ __________ Products would be _______ at ____________ _________ Effects ___________________: Prices ______ Value of money ___________ ___________people have money Inflation: Prices rise Value of money decreases More people have money Party and Candidate __________________ ___________________ and __________________ _______________________
Populism Review 1. List 3 problems of the Farmers in the late 1800s. 2.In what ways were the railroads abusing farmers? 3.Who founded the Patrons of Husbandry, the first farmer’s organization? 4.What were the 2 original goals of the Grange Movement? 5.What courtcase ruled Granger Laws unconstitutional?
Populism Review 6. What act gave the federal gov’t power to regulate commerce and trade? 7. What new political party developed and what were their goals? 8. What happened in 1893 and why? 9. Who was the Democratic candidate in 1896? The Populist candidate? What major issue did he run on? 10. Who won the election of 1896 and what impact did that have on Populism? 11-12. What were the lasting impacts of Populism?