Presentation on theme: "What Is a Comma? A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause is needed in a sentence. Commas help to clarify meaning for the reader."— Presentation transcript:
What Is a Comma? A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause is needed in a sentence. Commas help to clarify meaning for the reader.
Sentence Structure: Commas in a Series Place commas in a sentence to divide items in a list. The commas will help the reader to avoid confusion. The comma before the conjunction is generally required, but it can be omitted if there is no possibility of confusion
Commas should be placed in series of words, phrases, or clauses. Place commas in the following sentences: Sentence Structure: Commas in a Series Martina brushed her hair put on her pajamas and went to bed. She fell asleep and dreamed that she was a princess she kissed a frog and she rescued her prince. Martina brushed her hair, put on her pajamas, and went to bed. She fell asleep and dreamed that she was a princess, she kissed a frog, and she rescued her prince.
Rule 1: Use a comma to separate items in a SERIES. Remember: You need three or more items to make a series. 1 2 3 Parents need patience, love, and understanding. The new bike looks sleek and fast.
Rule 2: Use a comma between the day of the month and the year and BETWEEN THE YEAR AND THE REST OF THE SENTENCE. The ship struck an iceberg on April 14, 1912, and sank early the next morning. DO NOT use a comma if only the month and year are given. The ship sank in April 1912 on its first voyage.
Rule 3: Use a comma after the street name and between the city and state when writing an address in a SENTENCE. Bob Miller Middle School is located at 2400 Cozy Hill Circle, Henderson, Nevada 89052. REMEMBER: NEVER use a comma between the state and zip code.
Sentence Structure: Independent Clause A complete sentence has two components, a subject and a verb. The subject and verb must form a complete thought to be considered an independent clause. The couple dances. subject (S) verb (V)
Sentence Structure: Compound Sentence A sentence that contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction is called a compound sentence. A conjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses together in a sentence. Conjunctions –for –and –nor –but –or –yet –so FAN BOYS
Sentence Structure: Compound Sentence The comma in a compound sentence is placed before the coordinating conjunction. Andy built a snowman, and Jeff played with his dog. S V conj. Andy built a snowman, and Jeff played with his dog. S V
Where would you place the comma in the following sentence? Sentence Structure: Compound Sentence Dan struggled with his homework so his father helped him. Dan struggled with his homework, so his father helped him. S V conj. S V
Rule 4: Use a comma before FANBOYS when they join independent clauses in a COMPOUND SENTENCE. EXAMPLE: The enchanting princess caught my attention, for I had never seen such beauty and grace. MY EXAMPLES: for and nor but or yet so
Clauses and Phrases A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a verb that complement each other A phrase is a group of words that do not contain a subject or a verb.
Sentence Structure: Dependent Phrases and Clauses Dependent phrases and clauses help to clarify and add detail to an independent clause. Dependent clauses may appear at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.
Sentence Structure: Dependent Clause A dependent clause contains a subject and verb, but the clause cannot stand independently. Dependent clauses can often be identified by the use of subordinating conjunctions. Some subordinating conjunctions: because since when while until if as though although unless after before once whether
Introductory Clause = dependent clause located at the beginning of a sentence When a dependent clause is placed at the beginning of a sentence, place a comma between the independent clause and the dependent clause. When Elizabeth called 911, the firemen rushed to her rescue. When Elizabeth called 911, the firemen rushed to her rescue. SC S V S V
Introductory Clause Where would you place the comma in the following examples? After the movie ended we went out for coffee. Since it was raining we decided to go to the movies. Once the movie began I fell asleep. Since it was raining, we decided to go to the movies. SC S V S V Once the movie began, I fell asleep. SCS V S V After the movie ended, we went out for coffee. SC S V S V
Rule 5: Use a comma after an INTRODUCTORY DEPENDENT CLAUSE. EXAMPLE: Even though we ate all day, we had room for ice cream. MY EXAMPLES:
Dependent Clauses When a dependent clause is located after an independent clause, DO NOT place a comma between the two. I went on the roller coaster because my brother dared me. S V SC S V I became very sick when the S V SC roller coaster zoomed upside-down. S V
Commas with Adjectives Use commas to separate adjectives that provide an equal description of a noun. THE TEST: Can you put “and” between the adjectives? Can they be described in reverse order? If so, use a comma. big blue house…big and blue house…I don’t think so! Three hungry kittens…three and hungry kittens…I don’t think so! a cranky, ungrateful man…a cranky and ungrateful man… Absolutely!!!!!!!
Rule 6: Use a comma to separate TWO ADJECTIVES before a noun. EXAMPLE: The meddlesome, nosy neighbor would not mind her own business. mind her own business. The extraordinary, gifted athlete was also The extraordinary, gifted athlete was also kind. kind. Examples:
Sentence Structure: Essential Phrases and Clauses An essential clause or phrase is used to modify a noun. It also adds information that is critical to the meaning of the sentence. Essential clauses are NOT set off by commas.
The people who work in my office are so uptight! Sentence Structure: Essential Phrases and Clauses S V essential phrase The sentence does not make sense without the essential phrase. The people are so uptight!
The cow that has the wet nose is my favorite. Sentence Structure: Essential Phrases and Clauses The word “that” is almost always an indicator of an essential phrase or clause. S essential phrase V
Sentence Structure: Non-essential Phrases and Clauses A non-essential phrase or clause adds extra information to a sentence. This information can be eliminated from the sentence without jeopardizing the meaning of the sentence. Always place commas around non-essential phrases and clauses.
Sentence Structure: Non-essential Phrases and Clauses The Killers, who are from Las Vegas, are an awesome band. The Killers, who are from Las Vegas, are an awesome band. non-essential The sentence makes sense without the phrase: The Killers are an awesome band.
Sentence Structure: Non-essential Phrases and Clauses The handsome man proposed to the beautiful woman on Valentine’s Day, which was her favorite holiday. non-essential Use commas to set off additional information, that is unnecessary to the sentence.
Would you place commas in the following sentences? If so, where? I am planning a trip to Paris which is one of the greatest cities in the world. I am planning a trip to Paris which is one of the greatest cities in the world. No comma is needed. The sentence is correct. The place that I would most like to see is the Eiffel Tower. Pierre who is one of my business contacts will meet me at the airport. I am planning a trip to Paris, which is one of the greatest cities in the world. Pierre, who is one of my business contacts, will meet me at the airport.
Rule 7: Use a comma to set off phrases and clauses that are NONESSENTIAL to the meaning of the sentence. Examples: I love driving my Suburban, which is also known as a Texas Cadillac. My brother, who lives in Indonesia, likes to barbecue. REMEMBER: Some phrases and clauses are ESSENTIAL or NECESSARY to the meaning of a sentence. DO NOT use commas in that case. Example: The man who I marry must have a good personality.
Sentence Structure: An appositive is a phrase that identifies a noun. It follows the noun it identifies and is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. 1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us next week. 1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us next week. 2. Myrtle Anne, a sweet and lovable girl, grew up to be a delightful woman.
Can you place commas around the appositives in the following sentences? My brother’s car a sporty red convertible is the envy of all my friends. The chief surgeon an expert in transplants has offered to give me a new brain.,,,,
Rule 8: Use a comma to set off most APPOSITIVES. Examples: 1.Bob Miller the best middle school in Clark County is located in Green Valley. 2.My favorite pet the prettiest cow this side of Texas loves me.,,,,
Sentence Structure: An interrupter is a word or words that break the original flow of words in a sentence. Well I am not sure I want to go bungee jumping. Yes you may use your dogbone for your missing assignment today. Vegetables of course are important to a balanced diet.,,,,
Rule 9: Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions that INTERRUPT a sentence. My examples: Additional Examples: However, therefore, of course, I believe, I suppose, in my opinion
Rule 10: Use a comma to separate a DIRECT QUOTE FROM THE SPEAKER. Example: “I’m not ready “ he replied. REMEMBER: If the tag line (speaker) INTERRUPTS A SENTENCE, a comma should also separate the tag line from the rest of the sentence. Example: “I’m not ready “ he replied “but you can go ahead without me.”,,,
REMEMBER: If the tag line (speaker) DOES NOT INTERRUPT A SENTENCE, only ONE comma is necessary. Example: “You know the way” he said. “You can go ahead without me.”, (You know the way. You can go without me.)
Rule 11: Use a comma to set off WORDS IN A DIRECT ADDRESS. Examples: 1.Bubba let’s go sit on the porch. 2.Your overalls Bubba are drying on the clothesline. 3.Please tuck in your flannel shirt Bubba.,,,,
Rule 12: Use a comma when no comma rule applies, but there is a DANGER OF MISREADING. Example: After I drove the car broke down.,
A Common Comma Error: The Comma Splice A comma splice is an error in which two independent clauses are joined by a comma We had a nice time, I hope we can meet again soon. S V
To Correct a Comma Splice Insert a conjunction between the two independent clauses Start a new sentence Insert a semi-colon (;) between the two independent clauses (only in cases where the independent clauses are closely related in topic) We had a nice time. I hope we can meet again soon. We had a nice time, and I hope we can meet again soon.
How would you correct the following sentences? This semester I am taking calculus physics and economics. Calculus is my best subject, I am certain I will get an A. Although I am very busy I still find time to have fun. Last weekend my brother visited me and we went to a football game a party and a rock concert. This semester I am taking calculus, physics, and economics. Calculus is my best subject, and I am certain I will get an A. Although I am very busy, I still find time to have fun. Last weekend my brother visited me, and we went to a football game, a party, and a rock concert.