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**Excel Lesson 4 Entering Worksheet Formulas**

Microsoft Office 2010 Introductory Pasewark & Pasewark

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**Objectives Enter and edit formulas.**

Distinguish between relative, absolute, and mixed cell references. Use the point-and-click method to enter formulas. Use the Sum button to add values in a range. 2 2

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**Objectives (continued)**

Preview a calculation. Display formulas instead of results in a worksheet. Manually calculate formulas. 3 3

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**What Are Formulas? Page EX80**

The equation used to calculate values based on numbers entered in cells is called a formula. Each formula begins with an equal sign (=). The results of the calculation appear in the cell in which the formula is entered. 4 4

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**What Are Formulas? (continued)**

Formula and formula reset

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**Entering a Formula 6 6 Worksheet formulas consist of two components:**

operands operators An operand is a constant (text or number) or cell reference used in a formula. Example: Both the cell reference and the constant are operands in the formula =C5+9 6 6

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Entering a Formula An operator is a symbol that indicates the type of calculation to perform on the operands, such as a plus sign (+) for addition. Formulas can include more than one operator. 7 7

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Entering a Formula After you finish typing a formula in a cell, you must enter it by pressing the Enter key, Tab key, or the Enter button (√) on the formula bar. 8 8

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**Entering a Formula (continued)**

Mathematical operators

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**Entering a Formula (continued)**

You can change which cells are included in a reference by dragging any corner of the colored outline to resize the selected range. 10 10

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**Entering a Formula (continued)**

A formula with multiple operators is calculated using the order of evaluation—the sequence used to calculate the value of a formula. Contents within parentheses (beginning with innermost) are evaluated first. Mathematical operators are evaluated in a specific order. (Shown in table on next slide). If operators have the same order of evaluation, the equation is evaluated from left to right. 11 11

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**Entering a Formula (continued)**

Order of evaluation

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**Editing Formulas page EX83**

If you enter a formula with an incorrect structure in a cell, Excel opens a dialog box that explains the error and provides a possible correction. Formula error message 13 13

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**Editing Formulas (continued)**

If you discover that you need to make a correction, you can edit the formula. Click the cell with the formula you want to edit. Press the F2 key or double-click the cell to enter editing mode or click in the Formula Bar. 14 14

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**Editing Formulas (continued)**

Although Excel checks that the formula has the correct structure, it does not check that the formula contains the correct values or cell references. 15 15

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References page EX84**

3 Types of cell references: Relative cell reference Absolute cell reference Mixed cell reference 16 16

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

A relative cell reference adjusts to its new location when copied or moved to another cell. Example: Relative cell reference is used when you want to copy a formula that is the sum of 5 rows, and you want the formula to change as you copy it so that it shows the sum of 5 rows for each column. 17 17

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

Absolute cell references do not change when copied or moved to a new cell. Example: When you want to copy a formula from the bottom of the spreadsheet and put it at the top of the spreadsheet in a summary section and you want the formula to stay exactly the same and result in the same figure use the absolute cell reference. 18 18

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

Cell references that contain both relative and absolute references are called mixed cell references. References preceded by a dollar sign do not change. 19 19

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

You can press the F4 key to change a cell reference from a relative reference to an absolute reference to a mixed reference with an absolute row to a mixed reference with an absolute column and back to a relative reference. 20 20

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

If you were using relative cell references, the formula =A3+A4 would change to =B3+B4 when copied from cell A5 to cell B5. 21 21

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

When the formula =$A$3+$A$4 in cell A5 is copied to cell B7, the formula is =$A$3+$A$4 (stays the same) 22 22

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References**

When formulas with mixed cell references are copied or moved, the row or column references preceded by a $ dollar sign do not change. 23 23

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**Comparing Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Cell References (continued)**

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**Creating Formulas Quickly page EX86**

You can include cell references in a formula more quickly by using the point-and-click method to click each cell rather than typing a cell reference. Worksheet users frequently need to add long columns or rows of numbers. To use the Sum button, click the cell where you want the total to appear, and then click the Sum button. 25 25

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**Creating Formulas Quickly**

A flashing colored border indicates that you can replace the current5 reference in the formula by clicking another cell or selecting a range. 26 26

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**Previewing Calculations page 89**

When you select a range that contains numbers, the status bar shows the results of common calculations for the range. By default, these calculations display the average value in the selected range, a count of the number of values in the selected range, and a sum of the values in the selected range. 27 27

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**Previewing Calculations**

If you want to customize which calculations appear on the status bar, right-click the status bar to open the customize status bar menu. 28 28

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**Previewing Calculations (continued)**

Summary calculation options for the status bar

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**Previewing Calculations (continued)**

When using the Sum button, the active cell displays the sum. The Sum button is located in the Editing group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.

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**Previewing Calculations (continued)**

The SUM function that adds the numbers in the range D5:D17 is =SUM(D5:D17) The number count calculations lists how many of the selected cells contain numbers.

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**Showing Formulas in the Worksheet page EX91**

At times you may find it simpler to organize formulas and detect errors when formulas are displayed in their cells. To make formulas visible, click the Formulas tab on the Ribbon, and then, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button. The formulas replace the formula results in the worksheet. 32 32

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**Showing Formulas in the Worksheet**

You can also switch between showing formulas and showing formula results in a worksheet by pressing the Ctrl+’ (grave accent) keys. 33 33

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**Showing Formulas in the Worksheet**

The formulas replace the formula results in the worksheet. If a cell does not contain a formula, the data entered in the cells remains displayed. 34 34

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**Calculating Formulas Manually page EX91**

When you need to edit a worksheet with many formulas, you can specify manual calculation, which lets you determine when Excel calculates the formulas. To switch to manual calculation, click the Calculations Options button in the Calculation group on the Formula tab, and then click manual. 35 35

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**Calculating Formulas Manually**

The Formulas tab on the Ribbon contains all the buttons you need when working with manual calculations. 36 36

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**Calculating Formulas Manually**

Be able to know where Calculations Options button is located on the menu. Be able to know where Calculate Now button is located. 37 37

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