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Naming Muscles.

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Presentation on theme: "Naming Muscles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naming Muscles

2 NAMING MUSCLES: Tips Most skeletal muscles have names that describe some feature of the muscle. Often several criteria are combined into one name. Associating the muscle's characteristics with its name will help you learn and remember them. The following are some terms relating to muscle features that are used in naming muscles.

3 Naming Skeletal Muscles
1 – Location of the muscle 2 – Shape of the muscle 3 – Size of the muscle 4 – Direction/Orientation of the muscle fibers/cells 5 – Number of Origins 6 – Location of the Attachments 7 – Action of the muscle

4 Location: ____________________ (chest) ____________________ (buttock)
____________________ (arm) ______________________(above) ______________________ (below) _____________________(under or beneath) _______________________ (lateral).

5 Shape: deltoid (_______________) rhomboid (like a rhombus
with equal and parallel sides) latissimus (____________) teres (__________) trapezius (like a trapezoid, a four-sided figure with two sides parallel).

6 Size: ____________ (huge) _______________ (large)
__________________(long) ____________ (small) __________________(short)

7 Direction of fibers: ____________ (straight) _____________ (across)
___________(diagonally) ______________(circular)

8 Number of origins: biceps (two heads) triceps (three heads)
                                      Triceps Brachii Origin long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula lateral head: upper half of the posterior surface of humerus medial head: distal two thirds of the posterior surface of humerus biceps (two heads) triceps (three heads) quadriceps (four heads)

9 Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoid (origin on the sternum and clavicle, insertion on the mastoid process) brachioradialis (origin on the brachium or arm, insertion on the distal end of radius at the styloid process)

10 Action: ____________(to abduct a structure)
_____________(to adduct a structure) ______________(to flex a structure) _____________ (to extend a structure) _____________ (to lift or elevate a structure)

11 How Muscles Attach to Bone
Indirect Attachment – ___________________ the _______________________ (sheath of connective tissue that surrounds the exterior of the muscle fibre) extends past the muscle as a ____________________ and then attaches to ____________________________.

12 How Muscles Attach to Bone
Direct Attachment – the epimysium adheres to and fuses with the periosteum

13 Review: What is origin? What is Insertion?

14 Try to Remember… The origin usually stays fixed and the insertion moves closer to it Origin Insertion

15 3 Basic Types of Muscle Contractions
Concentric ________________________________ Ex. biceps shorten when lifting an object Eccentric ___________________________________ Ex. biceps lengthen as the same weight is placed back on the ground Isometric (static) _________________________________________ Ex. trying to lift an immovable object.

16 Push or Pull??? Muscles _____________ by contracting and relaxing, muscles _________________ They work in pairs to create smooth movement, they are called _________________________(opposing pairs).

17 Agonist vs Antagonist? Agonist– Antagonist -

18 Example: In elbow flexion, the biceps brachii will concentrically contract while the triceps brachii will eccentrically contract.

19 Fixators/Stabilizer Muscles that are active isometrically (muscle does not shorten or lengthen) in order to fixate an area when the agonist contracts Fixators/ Stabilizers -

20 Fixators/Stablizer Example: When performing a push-up, the serratus anterior stabilizes the shoulder girdle during the downward stage in order to prevent adduction

21 Examples of opposing muscles and muscle groups AGONIST (Prime Mover)
ANTAGONIST Elbow flexion Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Shoulder abduction Medial shoulder rotation Knee extension Wrist flexion Dorsi flexion Trunk flexion Hip flexion

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