Presentation on theme: "TWO-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN Unit 3. Positive and Negative Space Space is an Element of Art created simply by drawing an object on a page. Positive space is."— Presentation transcript:
Positive and Negative Space Space is an Element of Art created simply by drawing an object on a page. Positive space is filled by an object or element. Negative space surrounds the positive space.
Types of Space Decorative or Shallow Space Decorative: has little to no depth Shallow: Confined, limited space in an artwork Plastic or Deep/Infinite Space Plastic: has a 3D feel by creating a sense of depth far beyond the picture frame Deep/Infinite: feels limitless
The Gestalt Principles of Perception Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole.” It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s that attempt to describe how people organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. These principles are: Figure/Ground Relationships Similarity Proximity Closure Continuity Area
Figure/Ground Relationships The pictorial relationship between positive and negative spaces in an art work. Helps the viewer identify the figure (or foreground) from the background.
Similarity Viewers tend to group together objects that share the same characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, and value An object can be emphasized if it is dissimilar to the others. This is called anomaly (see example to the right)
Proximity Occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group. The nine squares above are placed without proximity. They are perceived as separate shapes. When the squares are given close proximity, unity occurs. While they continue to be separate shapes, they are now perceived as one group.
Closure The idea that the brain will fill in any extraneous information which is not present in the image. Occurs when an object is incomplete or a space is not completely enclosed
Continuity The idea that the eye will continue to look in a direction in which it is pushed by the forms and shapes present.
Area The smaller of 2 overlapping objects is seen as the foreground. The larger is seen as the background. You likely see the smaller squares as the foreground in both cases.
Spatial Indicators The following strategies allow an artist to manipulate the viewer’s perception of space in an artwork: Size Sharpness Location / Placement Overlapping Interpenetration Converging Parallels (linear perspective)
Size As objects move back in space, they appear to get smaller
Sharpness As objects move back in space, they appear to get softer, or blurry (out of focus) This effect is also commonly referred to as atmospheric perspective
Location / Placement As objects move up the picture plane they appear to recede, or, as objects move towards the horizon they appear to recede
Overlapping Objects in front will block objects behind Overlap will trump (override) the other indicators, so keep that in mind!
Interpenetration When one object passes through another and emerges on the other side
Converging Parallels Opposite edges will move towards each other; converging lines often indicate the angle of view This is really just linear perspective!!!
Abstract Expressionism Action Painting Color-field Painting Optical Art Popular Art Minimalism Performance Art Earth Art Photorealism Neo-expressionism Conceptual Art Post-Modernism Definition Art produced at the present period in time; includes, and develops from, Postmodern art, which is itself a successor to Modern art. Contemporary Art
Pre-1945 Emphasis on imitationalism; realism Documentation of events, historical figures, or religion Paris = center of art world Post-1945 Emphasis on formalism; color and geometry Revolt against previous movements NYC = new center of art world Europe in disarray after WW2 Rise of Fascism in Europe brought artists to the US The History of Contemporary Art
Abstract Expressionism Mid 40s – 50s: 1 st new style to arrive Emphasizes abstract elements of art instead of recognizable subjects; Stresses feelings and emotions Major Artists: Hans Hofmann, Jackson Pollock, Josef Albers, Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning
Abstract Expressionism Action Painting Emphasized the spontaneous, physical act of painting (dripping, splattering, pouring, etc.) Major Artists: Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning Color Field Painting Color for the pure sense of color Has a calmer, almost spiritual quality Major Artists: Mark Rothko and Helen Frankenthaler Shimmering Substance (1946), by Jackson Pollock No. 61 (Rust and Blue) (1953), by Mark Rothko
Optical Art Mid 50s – 70s Uses scientific knowledge of vision to create optical illusions of movement, relying on the careful manipulation of the elements and principles of design Major Artists: Bridget Riley, Victor Vasarely, MC Escher Movement in Squares (1961), by Bridget Riley
Pop Art Late 50s – 60s Artists portrayed images in pop culture and mass media. Began in Great Britain and spread to the US as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism; it’s playful and iconic, not psychological and spiritual. Major Artists: Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, and Claus Oldenburg Campbell’s Soup I (1968), by Andy Warhol
Minimalism Late 60s – Present Artists sought absolute simplicity, using a minimum of art elements: shape or color. Hard-edge paintings: emphasis is on crisp, precise edges Major Artists: Frank Stella, Donald Judd, Ronald Bladen, and Dan Flavin Harran II (1967), by Frank Stella Untitled (1967), by Lorser Feitelson