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1 The Importance of Successful Reentry to Jail Population Growth Presented by: Allen J. Beck, Chief Corrections Statistics Program Bureau of Justice Statistics.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Importance of Successful Reentry to Jail Population Growth Presented by: Allen J. Beck, Chief Corrections Statistics Program Bureau of Justice Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Importance of Successful Reentry to Jail Population Growth Presented by: Allen J. Beck, Chief Corrections Statistics Program Bureau of Justice Statistics Presented at: The Jail Reentry Roundtable The Urban Institute Washington, DC June 27, 2006

2 2 Local jails often ignored in policy discussions, yet process more than 12 million admissions annually Jails serve a variety functions and provide an array of services related to successful reentry –Point of entry into criminal justice system but also point of release and return On any one day, half of the Nation’s jail population is the consequence of failure under community supervision –34% on probation;13% on parole;7% out on bail/bond; 2% other release –In 2004 approximately 219,000 parolees and 330,000 probationers failed and were incarcerated

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4 4 Jail admissions more than16 times the average daily population Population counts: June 30, 2005747,500 Average daily733,400 Admissions: 7/1/04 – 6/30/0512.1 million 1/1/04 – 12/31/0412.6 million Unique offenders*9.0 million *Based on 71.1% incarcerated twice in 12 mos.

5 5 12-month growth rate for local jails rose sharply in 2005 0 2 4 6 8 10 9500 010203 04 05 Percent Change 99989796

6 6 Capacity has kept pace with population; jails at 95% of capacity in 2005

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8 8 Jail population is aging

9 9 Distribution by gender, race and Hispanic origin slowly changing

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11 11 Growth in jail populations linked to Increasing use of jails for housing by other correctional authorities Rising number of pre-trail detainees Growth in number of felons sentenced to jail Growth in the number of community release violators Time expected to be served by sentenced inmates unchanged (mean 9 months; median 5 months)

12 12 Increasing number of inmates held for other authorities

13 13 Rise in unconvicted jail inmates accounts for more than two-thirds of growth

14 14 Increasing number of offenders on community supervision returning to jail Number of probationers revoked and incarcerated 330,000 in 2004 up from 222,000 in 1990 Number of parolees revoked and incarcerated 219,000 in 2004, up from 133,900 in 1990 At time of admission in 2002, 34% of jail inmates were on probation (up from 28% in 1989); 13% were on parole (up from 10% in 1989)

15 15 46% of all jail inmates were on probation or parole at the time of arrest Estimated Criminal justicenumber ofPercent of status at arrestinmates, 2005jail inmates None349,80046% Any status397,70054 On probation251,20034 On parole 94,20013

16 16 26% of probation violators; 31% of parole violators revoked due to arrest/conviction for a new offense Status at arrest Revocation statusProbationParole Not revoked 34% 33% Revoked 66% 67 Arrest/conviction for new offense 26 31 Any drug-related violation 17 18 Positive drug test/possession 13 16 Failure to report: testing/treatment 6 5 Absconded 20 20

17 17 74% of all jail inmates on probation or parole at arrest met the criteria for substance abuse or dependence ProbationOther Diagnostic criteria or ParoleInmates Any abuse or dependence 74% 64% Dependence and abuse 49 41 Dependence only 1 1 Abuse only 24 22 No dependence or abuse 26 36

18 18 Marijuana, cocaine/crack and hallucinogens were the drugs inmates most commonly used Convicted inmates On probation or parole at arrest Month beforeAt time Substanceoffenseof arrest Alcohol 80% 33% Drugs 60 32 - Marijuana 40 14 - Cocaine or crack 23 12 - Heroin or opiates 9 5 - Stimulants 16 6

19 19 Treatment gap linked to CJ system Of the 415,000 substance dependent/abusing jail inmates needing treatment in 2002: –63% had been in any treatment or programs ever in the past –47% had participated in treatment or programs under some form of correctional supervision

20 20 More inmates receive treatment while on probation/parole, than while in jail 30% of substance dependent/abusing jail inmates had received treatment under correctional supervision –22% received treatment while on probation/parole, while 17% received treatment while in jail 36% participated in other programs under correctional supervision –26% participated in other programs while on probation/parole; 24% participated while in jail

21 21 Substance abuse treatment rose between 1996 and 2002 Rate of treatment/programs while under correctional supervision increased from 1996 to 2002: –Use at offense, from 43% to 53% –Use in the month before the offense, from 39% to 47% Treatment/program participation after admission, also up from 1996: – 20% from 17% for use at offense – 17% from 14% for use in the month before offense

22 22 Special needs of inmates remain challenge for jail management A third report regular use of cocaine/crack; 1 in 8 heroin or other opiates 47% of women and 13% of men report past physical/sexual abuse 16% history of mental illness; 10% of males and 16% of females received services A third report having medical problem needing medical attention since admission

23 23 Other challenges 14% of jail inmates reported being homeless, living in shelter or on street in last year 29% of inmates unemployed; 18% only occasional employment 46% report a family member ever incarcerated; 31% a brother;19% a father 31% report parent abusing alcohol/drugs will growing up 44% from single parent household; 13% from households missing both parents

24 24 Length of stay statistics suggest limited treatment opportunities in jails ExpectedEstimated number length of stayadmitted Percent >1 month2.5 million 19% >2 months1.6 million 13% >4 months 970,000 7% >6 months 540,000 4% Source: A. Beck, unpublished estimates, 6/24/06.

25 25 Treatment opportunities very limited in small jail jurisdictions

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