2 The “What” and the “How” All questions 1&2 have these two parts The WHAT = the message, the thematic concern, the meaning of the work as a whole The HOW = the literary elements used to create meaning The HOW might be called: literary devices, literary techniques, resources of language, narrative techniques, stylistic devices
3 No matter what the College Board calls it… The HOW part of the question asks you to …demonstrate your ability to identify literary devices (characterization, setting, diction, irony, imagery)connect those to meaning (the WHAT).This, as you know, is the heart of analysis.
4 Read over the sample College Board essay questions 1&2 from 2005-6. ActivityRead over the sample College Board essay questions 1&2 fromMark the WHAT and the HOW for each question by underlining the WHAT once, and the HOW twice
5 2005 (Q1) and 2006 (q2)(Q1)Read the two poems carefully. Then in a well- written essay, compare and contrast the two poems, taking into consideration the poetic techniques Blake uses. (Q2)Then in a well-developed essay, discuss how the narrator’s style reveals his attitudes toward the people he describes.
6 Questions 1&2: 2014Carefully read the following poem by the poet and novelist John Updike. Then, using specific references to the poem’s language and techniques, write a well-organized essay analyzing how Updike conveys the complex relationship between the novelist and the characters in the novel. The following passage is from Charlotte Brontë’s novel Shirley (1849). In the passage, the narrator describes the age of eighteen as an important threshold. In a well-organized essay, analyze how Brontë uses literary techniques to characterize the phases of life her protagonist is leaving and entering.
7 Question 3: open ended, free response From a novel or a play choose a character (not necessarily the protagonist) whose mind is pulled in conflicting directions by two compelling desires, ambitions, obligations, or influences. Then in a well-organized essay, identify each of the conflicting forces and explain how this conflict within one character illuminates the meaning of the work as a whole. HOW IS THIS DIFFERENT FROM QUESTIONS 1&2?
8 Question #3: 2014In many works of literature, relationships between siblings (brothers or sisters) create, clarify, or complicate central themes of the work. Choose a novel or play in which a sibling relationship—positive or negative—functions to deepen a central theme. Write a well-organized essay in which you analyze how the sibling relationship contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole. Do not merely summarize the plot.
9 Prose Analysis for the AP Exam Strategies and techniques for timed writings
10 Quick review: the “what and the “How” The WHAT = the message, the theme, the meaning of the work as a whole The HOW = the literary elements used to create meaning 2005: Read the passage below and write an essay discussing how the characterization in the passage reflects the narrator’s attitude toward McTeague. In your essay, consider such elements as diction, detail, and syntax. 2006: The following passage is an excerpt from Lady Windermere’s Fan, a play by Oscar Wilde. Read the passage carefully. Then write a well-organized essay in which you analyze how the playwright reveals the values of the characters and the nature of their society.
11 Analyzing under time constraint Prewriting—it can make or break your responseRead the question and the piece of literature without making any notations.Read the question again and analyze it for the “what” and the “how.”Read the selection again and analyze it for the elements suggested in the prompt. This means: mark it up and annotate!Re-examine the promptSift through your annotations, looking for patterns and elements that seem especially significant in light of the prompt.Compose your thesis. Try to answer the prompt in one or two sentences.
12 Look for repetition (words, phrases, images, sentence structure) Annotation remindersLook for repetition (words, phrases, images, sentence structure)Note unusual word choices or phrases that jump out at youNote figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification)Note imagery (visual, auditory, tactile)Think about purpose (why write about that subject?)
14 Preparing to write AP Test Question 2 PROMPT Read the short story below and write an essay discussing how the development of character in the story reflects Kate Chopin’s attitude toward the role of women. In your essay, consider such elements as diction, imagery, and syntax.Independently:Analyze the question and find the “what” and the “how.” Bracket and label.Re-read the story and do a focused analysis according the “how.”
15 . Before you write… As a group: Compare annotations Decide which you’ll include to meet the expectations of the prompt.Put your ideas together on a sheet of poster paper as you see below..Text examplesList and identify all the best ideasLook for patterns to emergeThesisAfter noting patterns, write thesisanswer the prompt, include theme+becauseSpecific examples:Narrow choices from the first columnList only those that best support thesisBe sure to label them: syntax, image
16 Body: Conclusion: Short introduction: Timed essay structureShort introduction:2-3 sentences that make clear reference to the questionUse key words from promptBut don’t just restate it, answer it!Body:At least 2 fully developed paragraphs.Address each technique and relate each to meaning.Always come back to the “what.”Use text references, both quotes and direct reference. Quote only the most apt sections of a line/lines…make use of your ellipsis mark.Conclusion:Not absolutely necessaryIf you have time, a sentence or two is sufficient.
17 What to avoid in timed analysis Writing to discover your ideasWriting a reader response (your opinions and reactions) rather than analysisDefining terms—just use them correctlyMajor “scratch-outs”—just draw a line through errorSkipping linesSloppy writingPraising the author
18 Prose Question- “post-test” Remember the timing for these experiences:Total 40 minutesSpend about minutes on pre writing/planningThis includes: analyzing the prompt , reading the text, marking the text, designing a thesis that ANSWERS the prompt.Spend remaining time (27-25 minutes) writing your response
19 Remember organizational issues Prose “post-test”Remember organizational issuesAnswer the prompt in a solid thesis—this is not the same as simply repeating the prompt!Short introductionWell-developed bodyUse apt and specific references to the textUse the language of analysis (but don’t define it)Short conclusion that returns to the WHAT
20 Grading of this “post-test” Prose “Post-test”Grading of this “post-test”I will score it on the College Board rubric (9-1)I will multiply your score by 2 and give you that number of points (formative)18-16 A (9-8)15-14 B (7)13-12 C (6)11-10 D (5)