4 A Recent National Policy Discussion Document in New Zealand The visionEvery student in every school has leaders and teachers who are actively engaged in professional learning and development that supports and challenges them to accelerate outcomes for students.- First Teachers can help to achieve this kind of vision
6 Professional Development Project in Literacy Over 300 primary schools in New ZealandWriting: Average gains 2.5 to 3.2 expected rate over two yearsLowest 20% 5-6 times expected rateReading: Average gains 1.5 to 1.9 expected rate over two yearsLowest 20% 3 times expected rate.Sustained over the three year monitoring period
7 More Recently (2014)Anthony Bryk at the American Educational Research Association on Improvement ScienceProvides history of improvement failures over 20 yearsToo much change expectedTried to replicate good ideas from other settingsQuickly work out a solution to a general problemIdentifies similar inquiry processes to demonstrate what works at scale
8 Moving from Professional Development to Professional Learning
9 Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle to promote valued student outcomesWhat knowledge and skills do our students need?What knowledge and skills do we as teachers have and need?What has been the impact of our changed actions?Deepen professional knowledge and refine skillsRelate to 3 findings of “How people learn” and adaptive expertiseEmphasise worthwhile content in deepening PK and refining skillsEngage students in new learning experiences
10 Some shifts in mindsets External InternalParticipation learning (so must be based on learning theory)Developing new practices solving challenging problemsImplementation trying things out, seeking feedback, trying again
12 Some Things We Know About Learning StudentsHaving clear goals, co- and self-regulating learning towards those goals is powerfulWhere to Next?How are we doing?Where are we going?Students
13 Developing Knowledge / skills Co-constructing meaning is more effective than transmissionLinking new ideas with existing ideasUnpack misconceptions togetherActively construct new ideas in holistic frameworksStudents taking joint responsibility for their learningFeedback and feedforward
15 Developing Knowledge / skills Co-constructing meaning is more effective than transmissionLinking new ideas with existing ideasUnpack misconceptions togetherActively construct new ideas in holistic frameworksTeachers taking joint responsibility for their learningFeedback and feedforward
17 Some shifts in mindsets Activities / implementationSystematic evidence-informed inquiryAssessment about student capabilityassessment provides information about teaching effectiveness
18 Assessment for professional inquiry Information about student capabilityInformation about effectiveness of teachingShifting the focusTeachers identify what needs to be taught againTeachers identify how well they taught something – what they need to learnInformation filedStudents told their markInformation reported to parentsStudents told what they need to learnShifting the focus
19 How do your teachers think about student assessment results? Deciding on student capability and what students need to learn? OR Identifying how well they have taught something and what they as teachers need to learn?
20 Some shifts in mindsets 3. Professional development focuses on implicit theory of professionalism as routine expertise Professional learning based on an explicit theory of professionalism as adaptive expertise
21 Routine to Adaptive Expertise Routine ExpertiseAdaptive ExpertiseApply a core set of skills with increasing fluency and efficiencyOwn beliefs taken for granted and not open to scrutinyBased on notions of novice to experts – practice makes perfectFlexibly retrieve, organise and apply professional knowledgeAware of own beliefs underpinning practice and when get in the wayRecognise when old problems persist or new problems arise and seek expert knowledge
23 Assessment from Different Perspectives Adaptive expertiseRoutine expertiseAssessment and learning are sequentialAssessment is about how well students learnInvestigating the impact of teaching undermines professionalismInquiry cycle is a set of steps to endureAssessment and learning are integratedAssessment is about the effectiveness of teachingInvestigating the impact of teaching is essential to improvementInquiry cycle provides a framework for learningSummarise key points
24 Example 1: An Australian High School (FT had expertise in written language) Principal and leadership team established that students were not doing well on national assessments, particularly in those subjects requiring a lot of writingWith the assistance of the first teacher, they identified the problem as students not being able to write extended informational textsTeachers worked with the first teacher to mark and analyse classroom writing samplesFrom this exercise, the first teacher suggested they focus on sentence structure, paragraphing and cohesionTeachers not teaching languages did not know what these terms meant
25 Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle to promote valued student outcomesWhat knowledge and skills do our students need?What knowledge and skills do we as teachers have and need?What has been the impact of our changed actions?Deepen professional knowledge and refine skillsRelate to 3 findings of “How people learn” and adaptive expertiseEmphasise worthwhile content in deepening PK and refining skillsEngage students in new learning experiences
26 Sentence structure Paragraphing Cohesion The Areas of Focus The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and meaningful sentences ParagraphingThe segmenting of text into paragraphs that assists the reader to follow the line of argument CohesionThe linking of ideas across the text, achieved through the use of referring words, ellipsis, text connectives, substitutions and word associations
27 Sentence StructureSkill focus: The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and meaningful sentences.1Correct sentences are mostly simple and/or compound sentencesMeaning is sometimes clear2Most simple and compound sentences are correct ANDsome complex sentences are correctMeaning is predominantly clear 3Most simple, compound and complex sentences are correct ORAll simple, compound and complex sentences are correct but do not demonstrate varietyMeaning is clear4Sentences are correct (allow for occasional error in more sophisticated structures).Demonstrates variety Meaning is clear and sentences enhance meaning5All sentences are correct (allow for occasional slip, e.g. a missing word)Writing contains controlled and well-developed sentences that express precise meaning and are consistently effective
29 MonitoringAfter one term, the teachers with the First Teacher’s assistance reassessed their own studentsStudents were surveyed about the extent to which their teachers were teaching the targeted skills
30 Reading Comprehension in a Primary School: The Importance of Analysing Teaching Practice Prediction of events – comprehension strategies for a purpose
31 Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle to promote valued student outcomesWhat knowledge and skills do our students need?What knowledge and skills do we as teachers have and need?What has been the impact of our changed actions?Deepen professional knowledge and refine skillsRelate to 3 findings of “How people learn” and adaptive expertiseEmphasise worthwhile content in deepening PK and refining skillsEngage students in new learning experiences
32 What features of these two examples are relevant to your context What features of these two examples are relevant to your context? Are there any implications for the work of the first teachers?
33 Getting Started: Gathering evidence about students’ learning and engagement Must be driven by CURIOUSITY about what is going on for student learners in your schoolUse a range of evidence – test scores, surveys, interviews, family perceptionsAsk students to interpret the data with youPut faces on the dataMeans much more to teachers
34 Teacher inquiry and knowledge-building cycle to promote valued student outcomesThe purpose is to provide a baseline for improvement and to find out what teachers need to learn to teach more effectivelyWhat knowledge and skills do our students need?What knowledge and skills do we as teachers have and need?What has been the impact of our changed actions?Deepen professional knowledge and refine skillsRelate to 3 findings of “How people learn” and adaptive expertiseEmphasise worthwhile content in deepening PK and refining skillsEngage students in new learning experiences
35 What Does this Mean for Leaders You need:Good data management systems for quantitative dataWays to collect qualitative evidenceSkills in analysis and collaborative interpretation of the evidence with teachers – this is what really counts!Skills to make collaborative decisions about what evidence will be used for baseline to monitor improvement
36 Purpose –relate new learning to prior knowledge What knowledge and skills do our students need?What knowledge and skills do we as teachers have and need?What has been the impact of our changed actions?Deepen professional knowledge and refine skillsThis is why you need baseline evidenceRelate to 3 findings of “How people learn” and adaptive expertiseEmphasise worthwhile content in deepening PK and refining skillsEngage students in new learning experiencesMotivated by the teacher’s desire to know, not someone else’s desire to tell
37 Teachers make the difference But they cannot do it alone, nor can First Teachers
38 Some potential issues impacting on the work of First Teachers Ambiguous roles and changed relationships between first teachers and othersToo much going on and not enough time to focus on learning to improveWork focused on individual teachers (remediation) rather than developing collective responsibility for professional and student learning through an inquiry processException may be supporting newly qualified teachers
39 Ambiguous Roles and Changed Relationships First teachers cannot take over leadership roles of:Defining their new role with their colleaguesIncluding conveying to colleagues that their practice needs to changeAddressing all the teaching-related challenges in the schoolFinding the time to work with colleagues when no formal time has been allocated
40 Too much going on: The International Research on Improvement More ≠ better Less = Improvement Learn in one area with a deep focus then transfer the learning to other areas
41 Start with learner-related challenges Student learningTeacher learning
42 Start with students in an area of focus then transfer learning: To other contexts – students, curriculaTransferTransferStudent learning7Teacher learning
44 Students Teachers Answers three questions Where are we going? Goal Where to Next?How are we doing?Where are we going?StudentsTeachersAnswers three questionsWhere are we going? GoalHow are we going? FeedbackWhere to next? Feed-forward
45 A Leadership Task: Setting Goals for Students Goals are broad statements about what you want to achieve for students in your focus for inquiryThey may be ‘vague’ but that is OK if supported by SMART targetsThey form the basis of your strategic and annual plansThey are likely to be a focus over a number of years – not just one, as they represent major shifts you are seeking e.g.,To improve numbers of students gaining qualificationsTo improve numbers of students reaching standardsTo improve numbers of students reaching x in written languageMake your goal high level so everyone can engage with it.
47 A Leadership Task: Identifying Targets for Students Targets are SMART - Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Realistic (but challenging), and Time-bound.They are very specific to the student challenge you have identified at the beginning of the inquiry process e.g. at a year level, in a subject, with a specific group of studentsThey articulate the shift you want to get (usually annually) in reference to baseline evidenceEmphasise that this data goes in the plan – it should be visible. A plan is a written document and has an audience and purpose. Data justifies your target – the reader can judge whether the target is worthwhile based on it.
48 Leadership Task: Identifying Baseline Evidence Baseline evidence gives a picture of the current situation in the area of inquiryThis is a must – It justifies/describes the challenge you are trying to resolveIt provides a base from which you measure progress – and monitor progress at least each termSome problems – hit you in the face. Environmental scan may be requried – go back to basics – find out where people are atSome are identified as you proceed on a focus and then realise it is too broad,People will only commit to goals they perceive as important
49 Targets – relationship to baseline data 2014Target for YearYear 5 exceeding …12%In 2014, 77% of Year 5 met or exceeded the ... In 2015, we are aiming for 85% of Year 6 to meet or exceed.Year 5 achieving …65%Year 5 below …23%1.One of the risks of the times we are in now is that leaders could put unrealistic and unhelpful pressures on teachers. On the other hand, we have to have high standards but it is the decisions we make as leaders that can impact most on teachers.Over assessment – and that can arise from leaders trying to cover themselves. The thing to keep in mind is you make decisions on the level of assessment and you need to keep the purpose of it in mind.. If we are making them more accountable for their outcomes, and I think this is inevitable given that we now have nationally set standards to focus on, how do we provide teachers with more support.I have heard people lament that the time of creative teaching in schools is over and that teachers will be doing literacy and numeracy all day and that art, music and PE will be neglected. To that I say –only if you let it happen. (mushrooming; tree climbing).More commonly the real problem. Are teachers using data to inform teaching?Your role – but commonly find data is not collated school wide, and is not able to inform goals because of lack of systems. Don’t have to have high-tech processes.After examining names.
50 Where to Next?How are we doing?Where are we going?TeachersTeachers also need learning goals and ways to monitor progressStudents
51 Learning Goals for Teachers Students’ learning goals …My new understandings to achieve these goals …My new practice and which students I will try it out with …How I will monitor if this new practice is making a difference to those students ….Where to Next?How are we doing?Where are we going?
52 Changes in Organisational Practices For your collective improvement efforts to be successful in achieving goals for students and teachers and not fragmented across many different areas may mean:Systematically creating time for opportunities to learn in relation to your goalsMeeting times – every face-to-face should be an opportunity for professional learningWhere else can you create time?
53 Monitoring and Measurement “You cannot improve what you cannot measure” Tony Bryk (AERA, 2014)Short- term, long-term evidence for both process and outcomes
54 MonitoringTo keep the goals and targets a priority, progress must be monitored several times a year (develop a timetable)The monitoring needs to include:Evidence of student actions and evidenceEvidence of changes in teacher practiceEvidence of changes in organisational practices
55 Area of intended change and outcomes Baseline What did the data tell us about what was happeningAt half TermWhat changes would we expect to see and how will we know?After a TermAfter 1.5 TermsStudent learning and engagementChanges in teaching practiceChanges in organisational practice e.g. meetings
56 Leaders’ Role: Work with others to set goals and targets and identify how they will be monitored and develop a culture of collective responsibility to achieve themFirst Teachers’ role: Work with groups of teachers to facilitate a focused inquiry process to achieve the goals and targets for themselves and their students
57 Identify some possible implications for you as a leader and as a first teacher (you may disagree with the material I have presented)
58 Thank you for listening and participating - Helen
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