Presentation on theme: "The Present Tense of Stem-Changing Verbs: e ie, e i, o ue (El tiempo presente de los verbos de cambio radical)"— Presentation transcript:
The Present Tense of Stem-Changing Verbs: e ie, e i, o ue (El tiempo presente de los verbos de cambio radical)
Regular Present Tense Verbs We have learned the 3 types of REGULAR We have learned the 3 types of REGULAR verbs and their endings. AR, ER, IR AR ER IR o amos o emos o imos as áis es éis es ís a an e en e en
There is a fairly large group of verbs in Spanish that undergo changes in their stem when conjugated in the present tense. These changes occur only in the first and second persons singular and third persons singular and plural. When a line is drawn around the forms that change, the resulting shape vaguely resembles a boot or high-top shoe; thus, these verbs are sometimes informally called “boot” or “shoe” verbs. There are three types or classes of “boot” verbs.
Stem-change verbs in the present tense These verbs take regular AR/ER/IR verb endings These verbs take regular AR/ER/IR verb endings You must memorize which verbs are stem- change verbs and how they stem-change (e-ie, e-i, o-ue,u-ue) You must memorize which verbs are stem- change verbs and how they stem-change (e-ie, e-i, o-ue,u-ue)
Let’s review and move on: The unchanged verb is called an infinitive. The unchanged verb is called an infinitive. The infinitive is composed of a STEM and an ENDING (the AR/ER/IR) The infinitive is composed of a STEM and an ENDING (the AR/ER/IR) In order to conjugate a verb, you must drop the ENDING and add different endings based on the subject of the sentence. In order to conjugate a verb, you must drop the ENDING and add different endings based on the subject of the sentence. In stem-change verbs, the STEM is also changed in some of the conjugated forms of the verb. In stem-change verbs, the STEM is also changed in some of the conjugated forms of the verb.
To Conjugate a Stem-Change Verb: Separate the STEM and the ending. Separate the STEM and the ending. (ex: mov/er) (ex: mov/er) Underline the last vowel in the stem. Underline the last vowel in the stem. (ex: prefer/ir) (ex: prefer/ir) Conjugate the verb using the endings that we have learned go with each infinitive group (ar, er, ir) Conjugate the verb using the endings that we have learned go with each infinitive group (ar, er, ir)
Now change the underlined vowel from e- ie, e-i,o-ue or u-ue in all of the forms except the nosotros(as) and vosotros(as) forms. Now change the underlined vowel from e- ie, e-i,o-ue or u-ue in all of the forms except the nosotros(as) and vosotros(as) forms. For now, we will draw a boot around the forms with the stem-change so we can make sure that all forms inside the boot have the stem change. For now, we will draw a boot around the forms with the stem-change so we can make sure that all forms inside the boot have the stem change.
entend er entiendo entiendes entiende entendemos entendéis entienden Type 1: e ie We’ll use entender, to understand, as an example of this type. The stem undergoes the change only when stressed.
Here are some other common e ie verbs: empezar, comenzar to begin pensar (+ infinitive) to think; to plan (to do something) perder to lose querer to want, to love preferir to prefer
tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen tener, venir The verbs tener and venir are what might be called partial stem-changing verbs; the yo forms do not have the stem change, but they do have an irregularity. vengo vienes viene venimos venís vienen Tengo exámenes mañana. I have exams tomorrow. Vengo de la biblioteca. I’m coming from the library.
servir sirvo sirves sirve servimos servís sirven Type 2: e i We’ll use servir, to serve, as an example of this type. Note: All e i verbs are -ir verbs.
Here are some other common e i verbs: repetir to repeat, to have a second helping pedir to ask for, to request medir to measure, to be a certain height teñir to dye, to color
almorzar almuerzo almuerzas almuerza almorzamos almorzáis almuerzan Type 3: o ue We’ll use almorzar, to have lunch, as an example of this type.
jugar juego juegas juega jugamos jugáis juegan The verb jugar, to play (games or sports), follows the same pattern as o ue verbs, but the change is u ue.
Here are some other common o ue verbs: volver to return, to come back costar* to cost dormir to sleep encontrar to find poder to be able; can recordar to remember soñar (con) to dream (about) * Costar is normally used only in the third persons.
The verbs querer and preferir Expressing desires and preferences Querer and preferir are important stem- changing verbs that have multiple uses.
quiero quieres quiere queremos queréis quieren querer When used with a thing as the direct object, querer means to want.
¿Quiere un sándwich de pollo? Sí, y quiero papas fritas también, por favor.
querer When used with a person as the direct object, querer means to love. quiero quieres quiere queremos queréis quieren
Quiero mucho a su hija, señor Vega.
prefiero prefieres prefiere preferimos preferís prefieren preferir Preferir, of course, means to prefer.
¿Quiere un sándwich de pollo? No señor, prefiero una hamburguesa.
Both querer and preferir can be used with an infinitive directly after them Rafael quiere esquiar, pero su novia prefiere patinar. Rafael wants to ski, but his girlfriend prefers to skate. quiero quieres quiere queremos queréis quieren We start with an appropriate person and number of querer or preferir... and then add any infinitive. estudiar escribir viajar bailar leer comer aprender dormir estudiar
pienso piensas piensa pensamos pensáis piensan Thinking and planning The verb pensar is another very useful stem- changing verb.
Thinking and planning Pensar basically means “to think.” Me gusta ir al parque para pensar y descansar. I like to go to the park to think and rest.
Thinking and planning ¿En qué piensas? Pensar en means “to think about.” Gabriela siempre piensa en sus estudios. Pensamos en el bienestar de la familia. Gabriela is always thinking about her studies. We’re thinking about the wellbeing of the family. What are you thinking about?
Thinking and planning Pensar de means “to think of” (to have an opinion about.) ¿Qué piensas de las novelas de Márquez? What do you think of Márquez’s novels? Pensar que means “to think that” (in answer to the above question, for example.) Yo pienso que sus novelas son maravillosas. I think that his novels are wonderful.
pensar + infinitive = to plan to do something Thinking and planning Pensar also has a special use... Pensamos escuchar música en el parque esta tarde. We’re planning to listen to music in the park this afternoon.
Thinking and planning ¿Qué piensas hacer después de clase? Después de clase, yo pienso... ¿Qué piensas hacer este fin de semana? Este fin de semana, pienso... ¿Qué piensan hacer Uds. (tú y tu familia) en las vacaciones de verano? En las vacaciones de verano, pensamos...