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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Media Industries Media industries are media businesses that influence people and cultures worldwide Media industries own interests in a variety of areas Radio and television production and broadcasting Motion pictures, movie theaters, and music companies Newspaper, periodical, and book publishing Internet services and content providers People spend more time in media related activities than in any other single endeavor

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Technology and the Media New technologies moved the source of information from newspapers to Radio as the media phenomenon of the 1920s Television as the phenomenon of the 1950s Computers, fiber optic cable, and broadcast satellites continue to change media today

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How has Media Ownership Changed? Before A variety of independent companies produced a single form of media (e.g., films) Now Large corporate conglomerates own more than one form of media

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Figure 14.1: Big Media Conglomerates

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Convergence and Media Concentration Convergence A melding of the communications, computer, and electronics industries  In 2000, AOL and Time Warner merged Gives a few huge corporations control over media sources Media concentration Tendency of the media industries to cluster together in groups to enhance profitability

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Forms of Media Concentration Concentration of ownership  10 corporations own 51 percent of all newspapers in circulation in the US Cross-media ownership  Own several types of media property, such as newspaper chains and television stations Conglomerate ownership  Combines media properties with other businesses Vertical integration  Corporations make media content and control distribution channels (e.g., television networks)

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Views on Media Convergence Supporters Convergence is profitable for investors and media executives Critics Limits news and entertainment by reducing message pluralism Decline of journalism as a public service profession Constant pressure for journalistic endeavors to be profitable Decrease in quantity and quality of international news available in the U.S. Quashing of public debate about power of media industries Increase of D.C. lobbyists representing interests of media giants

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Potential Problems with Media Concentration A few media giants control most of the world’s information.  Time Warner, Sony, Viacom, Disney, NBC Universal, and News Corporation People in other nations criticize how media conglomerates depict nations around the globe. Such images (often negative) influence the politics and cultures of other nations.  Export consumerism, violence, and greed (Kilbourne 1999)

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Violence in the Media Most scholars do not believe media causes aggressive behavior A number of scholars assert that gratuitous violence is used to sell media-related commodities Violent television shows make up 60% of all television programming Some studies show a relationship between short-term aggressive behavior and media depictions of violence Other studies suggest media may prevent violence by providing people with an emotional outlet

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Media Communication and Violence against Women Advertising often uses semi-pornographic images to sell products  Bondage, sadomasochism, and the sexual exploitation of children (Kilbourne 1999) Contributes to the view of women as sex objects  Leads to gender inequality

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Racial Stereotypes and the Media Stereotype Over-generalization about the characteristics of a group Media perpetuates racial stereotypes Casting some groups as having superior traits Exaggerating people’s physical appearance Suggesting all people in a category look alike Creating racial or ethnic characters who have undesirable attributes Linking subordinate racial or ethnic groups to illegal actions

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gender Stereotyping in the Media Under-representation of women as powerful, in control, and assertive Studies have found several gender stereotypes in the media Introducing gender-specific age bias in casting  Older men and younger women are often shown together Perpetuating traditional roles for women  Women as thin, only beautiful, and sexually passive Impulsive conduct of professional women  Shown constantly shopping, drinking/smoking, bizarre behavior Women abusing power Women overwhelmed by their work

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Symbolic Interactionist View of Media Influence Theory of limited effects  Media have a minimal effect Use and gratification theory  People are active participants and decide what they will watch, listen to, read, or surf on the Internet Social learning theory  People are likely to act out behavior from media sources Audience relations approach  People interpret what they see and hear through cultural filters

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Functionalist Perspective on Media Media fulfill several important functions in society Providing news and information Facilitating public discourse on social issues and policies Passing on cultural traditions and historical perspectives Entertaining people

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Conflict Perspective on Media Members of the capitalist class use the media to validate existing class relations Hegemony theory sees media as form of social control used by ruling classes to create “false consciousness” in the working classes

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