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Review of Day 1 A Brief synopsis of: Any Questions ?*

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Presentation on theme: "Review of Day 1 A Brief synopsis of: Any Questions ?*"— Presentation transcript:

1 Review of Day 1 A Brief synopsis of: Any Questions ?*
Terms & Definitions Duties & Responsibilities Welding Imperfections Mechanical Testing Welding Procedures & Approval Welder Approval Any Questions ?*

2 Macro Inspection Part II
Use a pencil only for the arrow line, but make all writing in ink 2) Report everything that you can observe 3) Do not forget to compare and sentence your report to the code provided 4) Do not forget to date & sign your report Make any observations, such as recommendations for further investigation for crack-like imperfections*

3 Macro Inspection Part II
Using the macro photographs and report sheets given to you, prepare your reports using the sheets given (20 min’s/macro) Identify indications, then draw a line on the report sheet smaller macro photograph and number it. Using the boxes below, identify the number and indicate what you have identified Place the size of the indication in the next box on the right, remembering to divide the dimension from photograph by 10 Use the following slides as guidance!

4 Macro Inspection Points
Macro Inspection Part II Macro Inspection Points Use a pencil for the arrow lines, but make all writing in ink only Do not forget to print your name Do not forget to put the date Do not forget to SIGN the report Make any comments such as recommendations for further investigation for crack-like imperfections*

5 Macro Inspection Part II
09.20 Example Macro Photo Macro Photo x 10*

6 NOTE: PHOTOGRAPH IS AT X10 MAGNIFICATION
Macro Inspection Part II NOTE: PHOTOGRAPH IS AT X10 MAGNIFICATION MATERIAL: LOW CARBON STEEL WELDING PROCESS: [MAG/GMAW] 8 9 1 7 11 All dimensions in mm 6 2 3 4 10 5 12 # DEFECT SIZE ACCEPT/REJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 EXCESS WELD METAL 12 EXCESS PENETRATION Overlap + 2 pores 0.5 Ø max * Laminations/inclusions* Lack of side wall fusion* Assess To Specification* Overlap* Linear misalignment 0.4* Lack of inter-run fusion + silica* Gas pore/pipe ? Check penetrant 2.2 Ø * Lack of side wall fusion + silica* Poor toe blend Sharp 75° * Angular misalignment 5°* 4.7* 1.4 Sharp*

7 Macro Inspection Part II
Continue with Practical Macro Inspection. (Or as directed by your lecturer/presenter)*

8 Coffee Break 10.45

9 Materials Inspection Size Condition Specification*
Materials arriving at the site need to be inspected for the following: Size Condition Specification*

10 Rolling Imperfections
Materials Inspection Rolling Imperfections Direction of rolling Cold Laps* Laminations Segregation

11 Condition (Corrosion, Mechanical damage, Laps, Bands and Laminations)
Materials Inspection Plate Inspection Condition (Corrosion, Mechanical damage, Laps, Bands and Laminations) Specification 5L Size Other checks may need to be made such as: distortion tolerance, number of plates and storage*

12 Materials Inspection Pipe Inspection
Condition (Corrosion, Damage, Wall thickness Ovality, Laminations & Seam) Specification LP 5 Size Welded seam Other checks such as: distortion, tolerance, number and storage*

13 Codes & Standards General discussion on areas of industry employing codes or standards* Discuss the 3 areas of responsibility: Design Manufacture Testing*

14 Codes & Standards The 3 agencies generally identified in a code or standard:* 1) The customer, or client* 2) The manufacturer, or contractor* 3) The 3rd party inspection, or clients representative* Codes & standards often do not contain all relevant data, but may refer to other standards*

15 Interpretation of Drawings & Weld Symbols
Weld Symbols on Drawings Interpretation of Drawings & Weld Symbols It could be strongly argued that without a thorough knowledge of weld symbols, a welding inspector is unable to fully carry out his full scope of work*

16 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Welding Symbols Most weld symbols contain 5 elements, which are: 1) The arrow line* a. 7 b. 10 5 x 100 (100) 111* 2) The reference line* 3) The symbol* 4) The dimensions* 5) The supplementary information*

17 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Convention of the arrow line: BS. BSEn & AWS   a)   Shall touch the joint intersection b) Shall not be parallel to the drawing c) Shall point towards a single plate preparation* *

18 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Convention of The reference line: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A 2.4 (US) a)        Shall touch the arrow line b) Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing* *

19 Weld Symbols on Drawings
 Symbols: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A2.4 (US) a) Welds this side of joint, go underneath the reference line b) Welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line c) Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol d) All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol e) All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any (spaces)* 10 4 x 50 (50)*

20 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Representation of welds done from both sides of the joint intersection, touched by the arrow head Fillet weld Double bevel Double J* Double V Double U

21 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Supplementary Weld Symbols Toes to be ground smoothly. (BSEn only) Site Weld Ground flush Concave or Convex 111 Weld all round Welding process. Numerical BS En & BS Further supplementary information, such as WPS number, or NDT may be placed in the fish tail*

22 Weld Symbols on Drawings
3) Convention of The reference line: BS En or ISO 2553 a)    Shall touch the arrow line b) Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing c) There shall be a further broken line above or beneath the reference line (Except where the weld is symmetrical)* * or

23 Weld Symbols on Drawings
  Symbols: BSEn (ISO 2553) a) Welds this side of joint, go on the unbroken reference line b) Welds the other side of the joint, go on the broken reference line c) Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol d) All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol e) All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any spaces f) All leg lengths shall be preceded by z and throat by a or s* z 10 4 x 50 (50)*

24 Weld Symbols on Drawings
BS 499 & AWS A 2.4 8 8 * a 5 b 8 5 8

25 Weld Symbols on Drawings
BS En (ISO 2553) z 8 or z 8 8 a 5 z 8 or a 5 z 8 * 5 8

26 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Example: Produce a drawing giving symbols for the welds given as shown below to the specification given Weld Drawing BS 499 MMA Example: Symbol Drawing 111*

27 All Fillet weld leg lengths are 10 mm *
Weld Symbols on Drawings Student Symbols Exercise Complete a symbols drawing for the welded joint given below to BS 499 & BSEn 22553 7 10 35 20 30 15 All Fillet weld leg lengths are 10 mm * All butt welds are MIG welded and all fillet welds with MMA

28 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Solution BS 499 10 a. 30 a. 20 10 * a. 7 b 10 a. 35 a. 15 10

29 Weld Symbols on Drawings
Solution BSEn 22553 z. 10 s. 30 s. 20 z. 10 * a. 7 z. 10 s. 35 s. 15 z. 10

30 To make a sound weld we need to
Welding Processes A welding process:* Special equipment used with method, for producing welds Heating Protection Requirements: To make a sound weld we need to Properties Cleaning

31 Welding Processes Safety
Before continuing with the welding processes section, there are 2 safety related terms that should first be understood* “Duty Cycle” relates to the current carrying capacity of all conductors, based on a 10 minute cycle i.e. 60% duty cycle means it can carry the specified current for 6 minutes in 10 then must rest for 4. A 100% duty cycle has no rest period requirement. (Explained fully in the WIS 5 course notes)*

32 No OEL Value O2 air content to be controlled
Welding Processes Safety OEL/MEL (Occupational or Maximum Exposure Limit) which is used in reference to fume exposure such as that caused in arc welding. The value may be in PPM or mg/m3 depending on a particulate fume, or a gas. Typical values in EH/40 are* Fume or gas Exposure Limit Effect on Health Cadmium 0.025Mg/m3 Extremely toxic General Welding Fume 5Mg/m3 Low toxicity Iron Aluminium Ozone 0.20 PPM Phosgene 0.02 PPM Argon No OEL Value O2 air content to be controlled Very low toxicity

33 Arc Characteristics for MMA & TIG
Constant Current/Amperage Volt Amp Characteristic* OCV Large change in voltage = Smaller change in amperage* Volts Large arc gap* Welding Voltage* Small arc gap Amps

34 Manual Metal Arc Welding
Power control panel Power source. Transformer/Rectifier Electrode oven (Up to 350 °C) Holding Oven (Up to 200 °C) Electrodes Inverter power source Power return cable Electrode holder Safety visor (With dark lens) * Power cable

35 Requirements of MMA 1) A Transformer/Rectifier (Constant current type)
2) A power and power return cable 3) Electrode holder 4) Electrode (To correct specification) 5) Correct visor & glass, all safety clothing and extraction

36 Parameters & Inspection Points
1) Amperage 2) Arc Voltage 3) Polarity 4) Speed of Travel 5) Electrode type & Ø 6) Duty Cycles 7) Electrode condition 8) Connections 9) Insulation / extraction 10) Electrode treatments*

37 Typical Imperfections
1) Slag inclusions 2) Arc strikes 3) Porosity 4) Undercut Most welding imperfections in MMA are caused by a lack of welder skill, the incorrect settings of the equipment, or the incorrect use, and treatment of electrodes*

38 Advantages & Disadvantages
1) Field or shop (Portable) 1) High skill factor 2) Range of consumables 2) Short electrode length 3) All positional 3) **Low productivity (OF) 4) *Quick electrode change 4) High level of fume 5) Simple equipment 5) Hydrogen control * Enabling fast changes in material types to be welded ** Comparatively uneconomic with other processes*

39 Tungsten Inert Gas Welding
Power control panel Transformer/ Rectifier Power return cable Inverter power source Power control panel Torch assemblies Power cable Tungsten electrodes* Flow-meter

40 TIG Torch Head Assembly
Tungsten housing Tungsten electrodes Fitted ceramic shielding cup Ceramic shield cup On/Off switch Gas lens Split collet Gas diffuser Spare ceramic shielding cup * Torch body

41 Grinding the Tungsten The tungsten must have the correct vertex angle*
Grinding is done on a special jig, and on a dedicated wheel*

42 Gas Flow Rates Correctly adjusted shielding with a gas lens will give good cover without turbulence* Adjustments to the flow rate need to made according to joint design and gas type*

43 Fusible Inserts Before welding After welding*
A fusible insert is pre-formed and placed filler material that is mainly used in the root of TIG welded pipes* It is often termed an “EB insert” after* The Electric Boat Company of America, who developed it*

44 Requirements of TIG 1) A Transformer/Rectifier (Constant current type)
2) A power and power return cable 3) An Inert shielding gas. (Argon or Helium) 4) Gas hose, flow-meter, & gas regulator 5) TIG torch head with ground tungsten, collets, ceramics 6) Method of arc ignition (High frequency or lift arc) 7) Correct visor, all safety clothing and good extraction 8) Optional filler rod, to correct specification*

45 Parameters & Inspection Points
1) Amperage 2) Arc Voltage 3) AC or DC + Polarity 4) Speed of Travel 5) Tungsten type & Ø 6) Duty Cycles 7) Tungsten vertex angle 8) Connections 9) Gas type & flow rate 10) Insulation / extraction 11) Ceramic condition 12) Gas lens fitted*

46 Typical Imperfections
1) Tungsten inclusions (Low skill, or wrong vertex angle) 2) Surface porosity (Loss of gas shield mainly on site) 3) Crater pipes (Bad weld finish technique i.e. Slope out) 4) Oxidation of S/S weld bead, or root by poor gas cover Most welding imperfections with TIG are caused by a lack of welder skill, or incorrect setting of the equipment. i.e. Current, torch manipulation, welding speed, gas flow rate, etc*

47 Advantages & Disadvantages
1) High quality 1) Very high skill factor 2) High control of weld pool 2) Range of consumable 3) All positional 3) Loss of gas shield/site 4) Lowest H2 arc process 4) Low productivity (O/F) 5) Low inter-run cleaning 5) High ozone levels*

48 “Welding with covered electrodes” ESAB
MMA & TIG Welding Videos TWI “Welding with covered electrodes” ESAB “TIG Welding Steels & Stainless Steels” Or equivalent (1 hour)*

49 Plate Inspection Points
Use a pencil for the arrow lines, but make all written comments and measurements in ink only 2) Report everything that you can observe 3) Do not forget to compare and sentence your report 5) Do not forget to date & sign your report 6) Make any observations, such as recommendations for further investigation for crack-like imperfections i.e. penetrant testing* Slides WIS 5 Text Ref Section 23 WTC 7 Text Ref Section 17

50 Visual Inspection Practice
The purpose of this session is to practice the reporting format required by CSWIP in the practical plate examination part of the CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspectors exam Remember, the responsibilities of a welding inspector are: Observe Report Compare*.

51 Observe Its not just the project that must meet the standard!!
To observe welding imperfections you are required to have good close vision acuity A close vision acuity test will be given to you before your exam to establish if your vision meets the minimum standard required Its not just the project that must meet the standard!! You will also require a thorough knowledge of welding imperfections and their likely location, causes and implications*

52 Report After you have observed an imperfection and determined its type, you must be able to take measurements and complete a report * The first report should be in the form of a repair map of the weld. (i.e. All observations are Identified Sized and Located) Should the imperfection be a defect and require repair, it will need to be accurately found and re-identified* The report map form used in CSWIP will look like the following:*

53 Report Page 1 of VISUAL INSPECTION PLATE REPORT Code/Specification used ________________________ Welding process _____________________ Joint type__________________ Name [Block capitals]__________________________ Signature ___________________________ Test piece identification Welding position ______________________________________ Length & thickness of plate____________________ Date___________________________ Weld Face M E A S U R F O T H I D G A

54 Compare All CSWIP 3.1 candidates should use there nominated pipe code for all your visual inspection practice, as this will help them become conversant with the specification Practice this up and till the end of the day, or as directed by your course lecturer*


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