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Week 7 Web Typography. 2 Understanding Type Design Principles.

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Presentation on theme: "Week 7 Web Typography. 2 Understanding Type Design Principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 7 Web Typography

2 2 Understanding Type Design Principles

3 3 Choose fewer fonts and sizes Choose available fonts Design for legibility Avoid using text as graphics

4 4 Choose Fewer Fonts and Sizes Your pages will look cleaner when you choose fewer fonts and sizes of type Decide on a font for each different level of topic importance, such as page headings, section headings, and body text Communicate the hierarchy of information with changes in the size, weight, or color of the typeface

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6 6 Use Available Fonts The user’s browser and operating system determine how a font is displayed To control more effectively how text appears on your pages, think in terms of font families, such as serif and sans- serif typefaces

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10 10 Avoid Using Text as Graphics Save text graphics for important purposes, such as the main logo for your page or as reusable navigation graphics Remember that including text as graphics means users cannot search for that text Whenever possible, use HTML-styled text on your pages

11 11 Understanding CSS Measurement Units CSS offers a variety of measurement units, almost to the point of offering too many choices For example, to specify font size, you can use any of the measurement units listed in the following table

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13 13 Specify a fixed value P {margin: 1.25in;} Cannot be scaled to client display Should only be used when exact measurements of destination medium are known Absolute Units

14 14 Enables scalable Web pages that adapt to different display types and sizes Recommended method for Web page design Relative measurement values such as em and px are designed to let you build scalable Web pages that adapt to different display types and sizes The W3C recommends that you always use relative values Relative Units

15 15 The em is a printing measurement, traditionally equal to the horizontal length of the capital letter M in any given font size In CSS the em unit is equal to the font size of an element It can be used for both horizontal and vertical measurement The em Unit

16 16 The ex Unit The ex unit is equal to the height of the lowercase letter x in any given font As shown in the figure, the height of the lowercase letter x varies widely from one typeface to another

17 17 The px Unit Pixels are the basic picture element of a computer display The size of the pixel is determined by the display resolution Pixel measurements work well for computer displays, but they are not so well suited to other media, such as printing

18 18 Percentages Percentage values are always relative to another value For example, the following rule sets the font size for the element to 1.5 times the size of the browser default: body {font-size: 150%;} Child elements inherit the percentage values of their parents For example, the text in the following example is 125% larger than the that contains it: p {font-size: 12pt;} p b {font-size: 125%;}

19 19 Using the CSS Font Properties font-family font-size font-style font-variant font-weight font (shorthand property)

20 20 Specifying Font Family Allows specification of generic font family names (e.g., sans-serif) or a specific name (e.g., Arial) p {font-family: sans-serif;} p {font-family: arial;}

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22 22 Specifying Font Size The following rule sets the element to 1.5em Arial: p {font-family: arial; font-size: 1.5em;}

23 23 Specifying Font Style The font-style property lets you specify italic or oblique text p {font-style: italic;}

24 24 Specifying Font Variant The font-variant property lets you define small capitals, which are often used for chapter openings, acronyms, and other special purposes h1 {font-variant: small-caps;}

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26 26 Specifying Font Weight The font-weight property lets you set the weight of the typeface p {font-weight: bold;}

27 27 Using the Font Shortcut Property The font shortcut property lets you abbreviate the more verbose individual property listings The following rules produce the same results p {font-weight: bold; font-size: 18pt; line-height: 24pt; font- family: arial;} p {font: bold 18pt/24pt arial;}

28 28 Using the CSS Text Spacing Properties

29 29 CSS Text Spacing Properties text-indent text-align line-height vertical-align letter-spacing word-spacing

30 30 Specifying Text Indents Use the text indent property to set the amount of indentation for the first line of text in an element, such as a paragraph The following rule sets an indent of 24 points: p {font-family: text-indent: 24pt;}

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32 32 Specifying Text Alignment Use the text-align property to set horizontal alignment for the lines of text in an element p {text-align: justify}

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34 34 Specifying Line Height CSS allows you to specify either a percentage or absolute value for the line height, which is more commonly called leading The following rule sets the line height to 2 em: p {line-height: 2 em;}

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37 37 Specifying Vertical Alignment The vertical-align property lets you adjust the vertical alignment of text within the line box Vertical-align works on inline elements only

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40 40 Specifying Vertical Alignment (continued) You can also use vertical alignment to align text with graphics The following rule, added to the element with the style attribute, sets the vertical alignment to top:

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42 42 Specifying Letter Spacing To adjust kerning, the printer’s term for adjusting the white space between letters, use the letter spacing property The following rule sets the letter spacing to 4 points h1 {letter-spacing: 4pt;}

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44 44 Specifying Word Spacing The word-spacing property lets you adjust the white space between words in the text The following code sets the word spacing to 2 em h1 {word-spacing: 2em;}

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46 46 Summary Use type to communicate information structure; be sparing with your type choices, and use fonts consistently Remember that HTML text downloads faster than graphics-based text; use HTML text whenever possible Use browser-safe fonts that will display as consistently as possible across operating systems

47 47 Summary (continued) Standardize your styles by building external style sheets and linking them to multiple documents Test your work; different browsers and computing platforms render text in different sizes Use type effectively by choosing available fonts and sizes; design for legibility and use text to communicate information about the structure of your material

48 48 Summary (continued) Choose the correct measurement unit based on the destination medium –For the computer screen, ems, pixels, or percentage measurements can scale to the user’s preferences

49 49 Summary (continued) Use the font properties to control the look of your letter forms –Specify font substitution values to ensure that your text is displayed properly across different platforms Use the text spacing properties to create more visually interesting and legible text

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