Presentation on theme: "Polish Migration and the Changing Irish Urban System: 2002-2011 Dr Dan O’Donoghue Department of Geographical and Life Sciences Canterbury Christ Church."— Presentation transcript:
Polish Migration and the Changing Irish Urban System: 2002-2011 Dr Dan O’Donoghue Department of Geographical and Life Sciences Canterbury Christ Church University Canterbury, UK presentation for – IGU Urban Commission Meeting in Poznan, Poland, August 2014. Annual Meeting 2014 of the IGU Urban commission C12-39 URBAN CHALLENGES IN A COMPLEX WORD
Aims of the research Identify patterns of migration into the Republic of Ireland Identify size and location of migrant groups Identify the impacts of population and migration change on the Irish Urban System Identify and explore differential patterns of migration
Context Economic Growth – The Celtic Tiger Irish Population Growth Evolving Urban System EU accession 2004 – open door policy 2006 Census first to ask the question Polish Migrants – dominant group Polish language – 2 nd most spoken in Ireland No history of immigration
Previous research – limited Wickham and Krings (2010) – “people more mobile across national borders but also more mobile within national borders” - links to EU, free movement of people Roeder (2010) – wrote a literature review on Polish migration to Ireland and found “large gaps in the current knowledge about Poles in Ireland” Fahey and Fanning (2010) in an article in Urban Studies looking at residential segregation in Dublin found settlement patterns are uneven, not specifically at Poles Office for Minister of Integration (OMI) (2008) found about 1/3 Poles in Dublin and about ½ in Munster Gilmartin and Mills (2008) found Poles were relatively concentrated A common theme to emerge is under-estimation of official figures on number of Poles – some as high as 500,000. e.g. >300,000 Social insurance numbers issued Between 2004-2008
Data From Small Area Population Statistics (SAPS) Irish Census for 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011 2006 first census where specific spatial data on birthplace of migrants can be found Groups that can be identified in SAPS UK Polish Lithuanian Other EU 27 Rest of the World Data mapped at county level for overview Data mapped by urban system for detailed view (towns population > 2000)
Some methodological issues, need to be aware of……. History of the Republic of Ireland – Born in Ireland refers to Republic of Ireland not….Ireland….. UK Born (includes people born in Northern Ireland) e.g in Dublin 48, 507 born in UK in Dublin 17, 326 claim UK nationality so 31,181 born in Northern Ireland but claim other nationality, assume Irish Given the data set, cannot accurately tell which part of UK people are from, but there are clues…. Foreign Born (does not include all numbers of a particular group) e.g in Dublin 28, 846 Polish Born, but… in Dublin 30,581 Polish nationality (2000 Irish born children) Irish Born (may be part of a migrant group)
Shows lowest incidence Irish born near border with Northern Ireland and in Dublin Shows Highest UK born near border with Northern Ireland nnd down west coast
Polish Lithuanian Other EU 27 Rest of World General national trends for different migrant groups
Population Change in the Urban System 2002-2011
The Irish Urban System 1996-2011 Cities and Towns >2,000 population Zone A 1996-2002 Zone B2002-2006 Zone C2006-2011 Areas of Highest Growth
Foreign Born Population 2002 -2011 36 places with >20% FB5 places with >20% FB68 places with >20% FB
While not large populations of Poles, by 2011 proportionally quite high particularly as you go down the urban hierarchy, widespread penetration…. Highest % in Ballinrobe, New Ross, Bunclody and Fermoy
Greater Dublin Region Munster / Southern BMW region Growth in Polish Population 2006-2011 Greatest growth in Greater Dublin and Munster region Strong link to Hospitality industry Suggested >30% Poles employed in that sector BMW region – relatively poorest Region in Ireland – lowest growth of Polish population Even in BMW a high percentage of Polish population might be helping keep alive peripheral urban areas…..why so welcome??
Place of birth by City-Size range, 2011 Poles – greatest proportion in places – 5,000 to 9,999 city-size range, but generally increasing proportion down the urban hierarchy, Lithuanians similar profile Other EU 27 and Rest of World highest proportions in Largest cities in the urban System – but different processes - e.g. Refugees vs TNC employees Obvious question is why do the Poles have different pattern of migration in Ireland?
Conclusions There have been dramatic change in the Irish Urban System A large migrant population, particularly high levels in some locations Different groups have different tendencies, Poles penetrate down the hierarchy contrast with ROW and other EU 27 – an expression of increasing spatial mobility? Growth and changes in urban network partly explained by migration growth Peripheral areas benefitting from migration, a dispersed pattern of Polish migration Polish population now a key component of urban-Ireland, need to look at internal structure of Irish cities. Peripheral western regions still lacking strong urban development, often have high level of migrants