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Introduction to Fiddler on the Roof

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1 Introduction to Fiddler on the Roof
Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution The Romanovs, Rasputin, and Queen Victoria Connections to Fiddler on the Roof Created by Katie Reasonover for Julie Miller, Livingston Academy

2 Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution
Part One Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution

3 Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution
Topics Russia Siberia Westernization Intelligentsia Marxism Communism and Russia Lenin and the Bolshevik Party Bloody Sunday October Manifesto of 1905 The Bolshevik Revolution Terms Siberia Xenophobia Westernization Intelligentsia Narodnichestvo Proletariat/Bourgeoisie Menshevik Lenin/Bolshevik Party October Manifesto of 1905 Duma February Revolution Dvoelastif The Sealed Train April Theses July Days

4 Russia Russia. It’s cold and it’s big.
1/6 of the ENTIRE land surface of the planet. Double the size of Canada. 11 time zones. (The U.S. has 4 continental time zones.) Would take a full week to travel across Russia by train. Where do you vacation in Russia? In Yalta. Which is like going to Minneapolis for your beach vacation. Most of the population lives in the European plain area of Russia. They experience a steppe climate. Droughts and famine are endemic through Russian History.

5 Russia con’t.

6 Siberia Siberia is Russia’s part of Asia.
Siberia is influenced by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Also, it’s a great place for prisoners. Why? Because it’s vast and hardly inhabited. How vast and uninhabited..? Tunguska Event Something caused a tremendous disturbance… equivalent to the impact of 1,000 Hiroshima bombs. Flattened an area the size of Wyoming!!! No one knows what happened because no one was around… Wasn’t even investigated until 1927.

7 Tunguska Event

8 Westernization Xenophobia: fear of all things foreign. Russia’s history hasn’t seen much good come from outside of Russia. For the longest time, Russia is simply devoid of philosophy. By the 19th century (1800’s), there is a flood of philosophy coming from all sides. Remember: The Enlightenment took place (roughly) between 1700 and Which means Russia is really behind. Peter the Great initiated the influx of Westernization along with a love/hate relationship with the West. However, he only Westernizes the elite. This creates and even bigger socio-economic division. This trend of authoritarian rule continues until Alexander II. (9 leaders between Peter the Great and Alexander II.)

9 Westernization con’t. Peter the Great Alexander II
Peter the Great Alexander II

10 Intelligentsia Who are the intelligentsia in Russia?
Those who can read, are educated, and are thinking/ talking about Russian philosophy and it’s critics. Not necessarily the elite or royal. However, to be educated, you had to be able to afford it. So, the intelligentsia weren’t the peasants. Narodnichestvo = Russian Populism Idea is for the intelligentsia to go to the people (peasants) and make their life better. This doesn’t work well… The peasants generally resent “city people.” Usually, these “helpful” populists are turned over by the peasants to the authorities. Narodnichestvo is a complete failure and this really disturbs the intelligentsia.

11 Marxism Analysis of society focusing on class relations and societal conflict. Notes the evils of industrialized capitalism and the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie The proletariat is the working class. The bourgeoisie is the group who owns the means of production. Marx claims that the proletariat would grow tired of this, would rise up, and the State would wither away as the middle and low class establish a “paradise.” Karl Marx is German. NOT Russian. He has no use for Russia. Why? Russia is not industrialized. For Marx, this means there is no proletariat, who have a completely different mindset from peasants. According to Marx, the proletariat can see what they’re missing. This is what inspires them to rise up. The peasants can’t see how they’re being taken advantage of.

12 Karl Marx

13 Communism and Russia How does Communism come to Russia?
Sergei Witte is the Finance Minister under Alexander II and Nicholas II. He attempts to industrialize Russia, and through this, a working (middle) class begins to emerge from the peasants. Factory working conditions are horrific, living conditions were awful, punishments were extremely harsh, and the pay is terrible. Because of this, the workers become very susceptible to revolutionary ideas. Because the factory workers were centralized, it was easy for the intelligentsia to reach them with their ideas. Almost immediately, Russia had to deal with strikes.

14 Communism and Russia con’t.
Sergei Witte Nicholas II

15 Communism and Russia Con’t.
Menshevik- those who believe you must have Capitalism before Communism. “Orthodox Marxist” Georgi Plekhanov is the father of Russian Communism. He had seen the populist movement fail thus far. He doesn’t see revolution happening in his lifetime because he realizes that Russia must first industrialize on a large scale. Therefore, he tells people to support Capitalism, Westernization, and democracy because he believes you must have those things before you have revolution.

16 Georgi Plekhanov

17 Lenin and The Bolshevik Party
Vladmir Ilyich Ulianov aka. Lenin At first, he was a Menshevik. In 1903, he breaks off, saying that revolution can happen right away- without having to go through Capitalism first. His idea is that peasants are inherently revolutionaries as well. He also says that a “spark” is needed to start the revolution. He says that spark is a political party. Enter: The Bolshevik Party

18 Vladmir Lenin

19 Bloody Sunday “Bloody Sunday,” January 1905
Gapon is a police informant who is also a “revolutionary” priest. He organizes a peaceful protest march of mostly women and children, and they march to the palace to deliver a petition. As the march approaches the palace (unannounced) the troops open fire. This makes the monarchy look really bad and it sets off a wave of continued strikes and revolts. In the midst of this breakdown across the country, Nicholas II gives in and calls on Witte for help. Witte issues the October Manifesto of 1905.

20 Bloody Sunday con’t. Father Gapon
Father Gapon

21 October Manifesto of 1905 What did the Manifesto promise?
the restoration of civil liberties establishment of a Duma (an elected government) What did the Manifesto do? The Manifesto made a lot of people happy but it wasn’t enough for the radicals. The Duma elections are rigged in favor of the rich. Their votes count heavier than those of peasants of workers. But the Manifesto has catches… Article 87 Article 87 states that when the Duma is not in session, the Czar has full rule. Also, the Czar can dismiss the Duma. Nicholas II is out to undermine the Manifesto. All it really does is buy the government time. By 1912, there have been 3 Dumas and Russia is on the cusp of World War I.

22 The Revolution February Revolution
By the end of 1916, Russia is in a desperate situation. Russia is clearly not winning the war, their military and government are incompetent, there are widespread food shortages and workers’ strikes, and there have been massive casualties in World War I. February Revolution Women and children take to the streets for a fairly common “food protest.” The police are sent out to shut it down, but they are sympathetic to the people. Then, the army is sent out. They’re also sympathetic. The crowd starts taking over and gains control of the railroad station and munitions storage. They seize everything with the help of the army and the police. Because of The February Revolution, Nicholas II doesn’t just abdicate the throne, he quits.

23 The Revolution con’t. Dvoelastif
Dvoelastif (Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet, the Constituent Assembly) After the February Revolution and Nicholas II quits as Czar, Russia needs some sort of government. The Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet form a temporary government called the Dvoelastif. This government is made up of former Duma members and the Mensheviks. The Petrograd Soviet is dominated by the Mensheviks. In the meantime, the Constituent Assembly is setting up a new government. The army agrees to submit to the Dvoelastif. Remember! During this time, WWI is still going on. The Allies don’t want to see Russia fall, so they agree to recognize the Dvoelastif.

24 The Revolution con’t. What does all this mean for the people of Russia? The Dvoelastif fears mass democracy because they’re afraid of the people. They don’t want to encourage mob rule. Some liberties are instituted, but they don’t go far. Russia still doesn’t have a significant middle class, so a middle road between Capitalism and Communism is desired. However, there is no middle class to appreciate or value middle class values. Workers and common soldiers just want to have food to eat and for the war to end. They have no care for the “Duma” (the bourgeoisie).

25 The Revolution con’t. The Sealed Train
Remember, this turmoil and upcoming revolution is happening in the midst of WWI. The Germans send a sealed train to pick up Lenin in Switzerland and send him home to St. Petersburg with plenty of money. Why? The Germans need Russia to fall into their own problems. They want to push them out of the war. They know if they send Lenin home and they fund his politics, that he’ll light his “spark” and stir up trouble.

26 The Revolution con’t. The April Theses
When Lenin gets to St. Petersburg, he convinces the Bolsheviks to adopt the April Theses. Bolsheviks are a small party at this point. However, as the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet fail to make anything happen, the people get fed up. Bolsheviks come out as the only party that’s actually accomplishing anything and they’ve refused to work with the ineffective leaders. Bolsheviks start taking over the factories and the workers get militant. They realize that they can take over… The peasants start doing the same thing out in the countryside. Since the government is broken down, there’s nothing that can be done about this. As the peasants gain land, they divide it among the community.

27 The Revolution con’t. July Days
The people take to the streets again. Lenin and the Bolsheviks were caught by surprise- they weren’t ready to seize the moment. In true Russian fashion, the crowd dissipates into drinking, looting, and rioting. Since the Bolsheviks didn’t stand up and lead, they were blamed for much of the problems surrounding the July Days. There were many Bolsheviks arrested and Lenin goes into hiding for a time. He knows that the next time the people rise up, he has to be ready.

28 The Revolution con’t. Kornilov Affair
Kornilov Affair (coup d'état’) Kornilov is a general who sends units to Petrograd to pressure Kerensky (Minister of Justice in Provisional Government) to stand up to the soviet. When the troops arrive, Kerensky calls on the soviet for help to stop Kornilov. However, the soviet has many Bolsheviks in power, and has the power of the workers. They shut down Kornilov and completely undermine the Provisional Government. Now, the Bolsheviks look great.

29 The Revolution con’t. The October Revolution
Things finally explode and the Bolsheviks are able to take control. The party has power, but not immense support. 1. Decree of the Land. The sate gets the land but the peasants get to use it. 2. Decree on Peace. The Russians (Bolsheviks) decide to negotiate with the Germans (get out of WW1). Lenin tells the workers not to take over their factories anymore. He announces a free election to institute a Constituent Assembly. However, the Social Revolutionaries win 60% of the vote. Lenin decides Russia doesn’t need a Constituent Assembly. The cities support the Bolsheviks, the country supports the Social Revolutionaries.

30 The Revolution con’t. The October Revolution con’t.
Lenin wants to seize the powerbase of the cities to form a single–party state. To ensure this, he outlaws all other political parties. This makes it so that only the Bolsheviks rule. Lenin creates a join or fight situation and thus sets the stage for civil war. Changes Lenin makes: separation of church and state, calendar, 8 hour work day -6day weeks, abortion and divorce are legalized, only civil marriages are recognized, all industry is nationalized, press is closed down. Through all of this, Lenin essentially makes the revolution happen. In the early 1920s, Lenin suffers a series of 3 strokes and the last one kills him. At this point, Russia is on the brink of a civil war that will be between the Bolsheviks and all those opposed.

31 The Romanovs, Rasputin, and Queen Victoria
Part Two The Romanovs, Rasputin, and Queen Victoria

32 Who are the Romanovs? House of Romanov, 2nd Imperial Dynasty of Russia 1613-1917
Nicholas II, Russian tsar and emperor, reigned Married to Alexandra Fedorovna Children: Alexis (tsarevich), Olga, Tatyana, Maria, Anastasia Alexander III, father to Nicholas II, Russian tsar and emperor, reigned Married to Maria Fedorovna; mother of Nicholas II Children: Nicholas II, Xenia Alexandrovna, Olga Alexandrovna, Michael Alexandrovna Alexander II, grandfather to Nicholas II, Russian tsar and emperor, reigned

33 Who is Rasputin? The Man, The Myth, The Legend.
Baptized January 10, 1869 in Siberia. Murdered December 17, 1916 in Petrograd. From Russian peasant to mystical faith healer and personal advisor to the Romanovs.

34 Rasputin con’t. Efim and Anna Rasputin were his parents.
Rasputin married Praskovaya Dubrovina in They had 3 children: Dmitry, Maria, and Varvara. The Percherkin sisters: Catherine and Evdokiya were 2 of Rasputin’s first followers and were later his lovers and servants.

35 Rasputin’s Romanov Story
The Romanovs hid a secret from the Russian people. Their son had the blood condition hemophilia and the family did not want the public to know as they may have lost their faith in the Imperial regime. Instead they asked Grigory Rasputin, known for his healing abilities, to look after their son. In 1908, Alexis was taken seriously ill but Rasputin stopped the bleeding. From that point on, he was a member of the royal entourage. Nicholas also trusted Rasputin. He became his advisor whose one word was enough to place an unknown person as a minister at court. But Nicholas sometimes decided government questions of a higher scale by himself. Rasputin was strongly against the First World War ( ) and tried to convince the Tsar to make peace with Germany, but Nicholas held his ground and took Russia to war, which was a disaster for his country, with more than four million Russians loosing their lives. The Tsarina had been put in charge of domestic affairs and dismissed plenty of ministers for which Rasputin was blamed. Rumors emerged that the two were lovers. It was also thought that the pair were leading a pro-German court group, which led to Rasputin's murder in December 1916.

36 Queen Victoria Born at Kensington Palace, London on May 24, 1819.
Became Queen in 1837 at the age of 18. Had 9 children with her husband, Prince Albert. Edward VII, Alfred (who married Marie of Russia) Arthur, Leopold, Victoria, Alice, Helena, Louise, and Beatrice Reigned for 64 years. Died at Osborne House on January 22, 1901.

37 Queen Victoria and the Romanovs
Two of Victoria’s granddaughters – Elizabeth and Alix – married Romanovs; their stories are fraught with romance and tragedy. Elizabeth married the tsar’s brother, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, in 1884, though Victoria did not approve. Elizabeth’s younger sister Alix met the Russian crown prince Nicholas (Sergei’s nephew) at her sister’s wedding. The tsar disapproved of their relationship, hoping for a marital alliance with France, but Elizabeth and Sergei helped the young lovers write secretly to each other until finally, a decade after they had met, they were married. Alix converted to Orthodox Christianity and became Alexandra Feodorovna. Both met with a tragic end. After Sergei was assassinated in 1905, Elizabeth founded the beautiful Martha and Mary Convent in Moscow, before being murdered herself by the Bolsheviks. There is still a statue of her outside the convent and another above the doorway of Westminster Abbey. Alexandra and Tsar Nicholas II were executed with the rest of their family by the Bolsheviks in 1918. Tsar Nicholas, Edward Prince of Wales, Queen Victoria, Alexandra Feodorovna

38 Story: Faberge Eggs

39 Connections to Fiddler on the Roof
Part Three Connections to Fiddler on the Roof

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