Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK List various injuries to the elbow, wrist, or hand."— Presentation transcript:
1 BELLWORKList various injuries to the elbow, wrist, or hand.
2 The Elbow, Wrist, and Hand Chapter 20The Elbow, Wrist, and Hand
3 Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Define the major components of the elbowList major injuries and conditions of the elbow, wrist, and handList the different bones of the hand
4 The Elbow, Wrist, and Hand Many activities would be impossible without healthy functioning of the elbow, wrist, and handThis area of the body is one of the most intricate, yet most vulnerable to injury
7 Common Injuries of the Elbow ContusionsInvolve forearm muscles and subcutaneous bony prominences of the elbowDirect blows can result in bruising, bleeding, and stiffnessTreatment: RICE and protective padding
8 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Olecranon bursitisInflammation of bursa located over olecranon processCan be caused by direct blow or infectionTreatment: ice compresses, rest, and anti-inflammatory, pain medications, and occasionally aspiration of fluid
9 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Ulnar nerve contusionBlow or contusion to ulnar nerve“hitting the funny bone”Elbow strainAcute or chronicAcute occurs with sudden overload
10 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) EpicondylitisChronic strain commonly occurring in medial and/or lateral epicondyles (bony ends of the humerus)Caused by overload, faulty techniques, weak muscle groups, inappropriate equipmentTennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)Pitcher’s elbow, golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis)Symptoms: local tenderness and resisted wrist motion causes painTreatment: prevention, appropriate equipment, limited stress, stretching, RICE, and activity modification
11 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Elbow sprainsCommonly result from forced hyperextension or valgus/varus (side-to-side) forcesSymptoms: pain, a “pop”, tenderness, and swellingTreatment: same as elbow strainsDislocations of the elbowNormally occurs as a result of a fallSigns: obvious deformity, loss of function, and painTreatment: transport to medical facility
13 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Fractures of the elbow and forearmResult of direct trauma, or indirect stresses transmitted through upper extremity“FOOSH” = Falling On Out-Stretched HandSymptoms: deformity, point tenderness, hemorrhaging, swelling, limited range of motion, disability, and painTreatment: immobilization, ice, elevation, and physician referral
14 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Volkmann’s contractureAbsence of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearmCaused by swelling, trauma, or fracture blood flow shortens muscles joint bends cannot be straightened (contracture)Mild, moderate, or severeSymptoms: pain, swelling, decreased sensation, weakness, and skin paleness
15 Common Injuries of the Elbow (cont’d.) Nerve injuriesUlnar nerveSymptoms: pain and tendernessRadial nerveMedian nerveSymptoms: pain, numbness and tingling
17 Wrist & Hand Anatomy Wrist flexors Wrist extensors Anterior portion of forearmOriginate at medial epicondyleWrist extensorsPosterior portion of forearmOriginate at lateral epicondyle26 muscles move wrist, thumb, and fingers!
18 Hand and Wrist Injuries FracturesFinger fracturesBoxer’s fracture (5th metacarpal)Mallet (Baseball) finger (tearing of extensor tendon)Jersey finger (tearing of flexor tendon, normally ring finger)Scaphoid fractureColles’s fracture (in radius, just above wrist)Treatment: RICE, support, and medical evaluation
20 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) Dislocations and subluxationsDislocation: displacement of any bone from normal positionSubluxation: abnormal movement of a bone that constitute a jointSymptoms: pain, swelling, and unable to bend or straightenTreatment: ice, immobilization, and immediate consultation with a physician
21 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) ContusionsCaused by direct blows or falling onto a hard surfaceSprainsInjury to a ligamentGamekeeper’s thumb (tearing of ulnar collateral ligament at MCP joint) thumb becomes very unstableMedial & lateral collateral ligaments of fingers
22 BELLWORK What is the common name for lateral epicondylitis? What does “FOOSH” stand for?How many bones are in the hand?
23 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) TendonitisInflammation of tendonsCaused by overuse or repetitive stressdeQuervain’s tenosynovitis (tendonitis at base of thumb)Symptoms: aching or pain at the wristTreatment: rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication
24 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) Nerve impingement and carpel tunnel (passageway from forearm to wrist)Carpal tunnel syndromeInflammatory disorder of tissues & nerves around median nerveCaused by repetitive stress, physical injury, or conditions that cause median nerve tissue swellingSymptoms: pain, numbness, tingling, and weaknessTreatment: rest, ice, splinting or bracing, and sometimes surgical decompression
26 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) Ganglion cyst of the wristSmall, usually hard lump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a jointTreatment: if painless, no treatment necessary
27 Hand and Wrist Injuries (cont’d.) Boutonnière deformityExtensor tendon injury affecting proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joint (DIP)Symptoms: inability to flex and extend the finger, pain, and tendernessTreatment: immediate medical attention
29 Special Tests Varus test (LCL) Valgus test (MCL) Finkelstein’s test (deQuervain’s)Tinel’s carpal tunnelPhalen’s test (carpal tunnel)
30 ConclusionThe elbow, wrist, and hand contain some of the most intricate and complex joints in the bodyUnderstanding the anatomy, biomechanics, and mechanisms of injury will ensure appropriate treatmentElbow and forearm injuries are commonThe elbow is prone to overuse injuries