Presentation on theme: "1 010101010010010110101001001000101111010 Radicaal digitaal in de openbare bibliotheek: de intermediair-bibliotheek?! 011010100001010010100100100010101110010."— Presentation transcript:
1 010101010010010110101001001000101111010 Radicaal digitaal in de openbare bibliotheek: de intermediair-bibliotheek?! 011010100001010010100100100010101110010 Paul Nieuwenhuysen Vrije Universiteit Brussel Information and Library Science, University of Antwerp Belgium Lecture presented at the one-day workshop organised by V.V.B.A.D. Section Public Libraries, 14 November 2003, in EHSAL Brussels, Belgium
2 These slides are available from http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/presentations/ (note: BIBLIO and not biblio)
4 The library as intermediary Printed books and journals become relatively less important in libraries, when access to information sources becomes more and more feasible through the Internet and the WWW.
5 The library as intermediary Classical libraries Hybrid libraries! Digital libraries? the librarian acting more as as intermediary
6 - contents - summary - structure - overview of this lecture Part 1 WHY? The framework: Evolution and trends towards digital libraries WHAT? Activities in hybrid libraries WHERE? From physical, local libraries to more virtual libraries WHEN? When should libraries adapt to a more digital world?
7 - contents - summary - structure of this lecture Part 2 HOW? Tools and methods for digital libraries and librarians HOW MUCH? How much does it cost? WHO? Desirable skills of today’s librarians FOR WHOM? Who uses digital services? CONCLUSIONS - contents - summary - structure - overview of this lecture Part 2
8 WHY? The framework: Evolution towards digital libraries and future trends
9 Libraries: evolution to what? Let us have a look at important functions – key functions – of libraries and consider how these evolve.
10 Libraries: evolution of key functions? Collection development (hard copy documents) Cataloguing + classification (hard copy documents) User services: reference, user education… Providing a physical, local meeting place Conservation / preservation (hard copy documents) ?
11 Libraries: effects of more ICT The fast evolution to powerful and affordable applications of information and communication technology (ICT) has several effects on libraries and information centers.
12 Libraries: effects of more ICT 1. More applications of ICT to manage classical, printed, hard-copy books and journals ordering of documents; cataloguing of documents; online public access catalogue; administration concerning users; lending; interlending; financial management; communication by email; WWW sites of libraries...
13 Libraries: effects of more ICT 2. Providing access not only to hard-copy documents, but also to digital, computer- and network-based information sources.
14 The digital/electronic/virtual library: scheme Structures, practices, and methods of physical libraries and archives Computing power that is decreasing in price Communication capabilities of electronic networking Digital / electronic / virtual library
15 Libraries and information centres: future trends Hard-copy (NOT online) Expensive, fee-based Digital, online Expensive, fee-based Hard-copy (NOT online) Free of charge Digital, online Free of charge If it is not on the Internet, available free of charge, then it does “not exist”.
16 Libraries and information centres: future trends More information delivery directly from producer to end- user, even without involvement of a library or information centre as intermediary.
17 WHAT? Activities and management of hybrid libraries
18 Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles Collection development (hard copy documents) 1. Applying more and more ICT in collection development of hard copy documents 2. Acquiring access to digital information + conversion of important local documents to digital format (computer files) and making these accessible through the Internet
19 Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles Organizing access to hard-copy documents: »cataloguing »classification »physical placement 1. Applying more and more ICT to organize access and to manage hard copy documents 2. Organizing access to digital information, which includes providing access to computers connected to the Internet
20 Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles User services: reference, user education… + Offering services in a computer-network environment OPAC available throught the Internet; WWW site of the library; creating and offering guides to information sources, and in particular to locally relevant information; virtual reference services;…
21 Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles Providing a physical, local meeting place + Presence on the WWW, accessible from everywhere This offers further possibilities like more or less automatic personalisation of the services, depending on the user’s address, age, expressed interests, previous activities related to the library services.
22 Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles Conservation / preservation (hard copy documents) + Conservation of digital documents or ensuring continuous access to digital documents
23 “Collection development”: hard copy + digital User / Reader Collection development Library or information centre Electronic, digital resources Hard copy
24 “Collection development”: hard copy + digital User / Reader Searching Electronic, digital resources Hard copy
25 Organizing access to information in hybrid libraries User / Reader Searching + using Hard copy + electronic, digital resources in an integrated, hybrid library
26 Organizing access to information in libraries: the problem Users should be guided in finding their way through the maze, through the labyrinth that is formed by all available information systems and services.
28 Integrating access to all types of information Web site created, offered, and maintained by a library or information centre 1 or several catalogues / databases created, offered, and maintained by a library or information centre
29 Current awareness services provided by libraries The incoming flow of new available information is huge. The potential user/reader has limited time. So information centres can provide a current awareness service (alerting service): based on the interests of the user, the library sends the user »descriptions of new information sources (plus an explanation of how to obtain the full version) »OR directly the full version
30 Organizing access to information in information centres: user studies A few web site users should be selected from various categories of the user community and the way they work with your web site should be studied. The observation of their behaviour and the comments by those users can be useful and interesting to improve your web site.
31 Organizing access to information: the value of information? What is the value of information sources? Which price is reasonable and acceptable for access to information sources? These are simple questions but the answers are difficult. Debates on these questions by all stakeholders are going on almost continuously.
32 Organizing access to information: the value of structured information? A related but different question is: What is the value of a good guide to information? Which price is reasonable and acceptable for ORGANISING / STRUCTURING information sources? How do decision makers see this?
33 WHERE? From local, physical libraries to more virtual, invisible information centers
34 Libraries and information centres: future trend = becoming invisible Conservation of hard copy documents becomes a smaller task in comparison with other activities in libraries. Services offered by libraries become more virtual, less clearly visible. Is the ideal library invisible? Who wants to pay for an invisible library?
36 From local, physical libraries to invisible information centers From visible, human librarians to more invisible information experts? Who wants to pay for invisible librarians? ?
37 The physical location of the library becomes less important The physical location of documents is an irrelevant concept when the documents are based on computer- networks and the Internet in particular. The physical location of information intermediaries of a library is not important anymore, when reference services and guidance is offered by information intermediaries / experts through the Internet, by using an application like WWW or email. “Virtual reference services”
38 From local libraries to regional information services When physical location is less important, then besides local, physical libraries, an important contribution can be made by more regional, international, virtual, digital, invisible libraries and information services that focus »on a particular information subject, or »on a particular user community Organizing such a service by further cooperation among classical libraries is one possible scenario. However, such services do not have to be associated anymore with more traditional, classical libraries.
39 Local, physical libraries can still be attractive Physical libraries can of course remain attractive when they offer »many classical documents that are not available through the Internet »an interesting, attractive space for contemplation, study, entertainment, self-development, meetings… Of course the library budget is limited and can be spent only once in a hybrid library: either on the physical library, either on the digital library
40 How to make hybrid libraries “attractive places”? Physical libraries can be made attractive and usable by good architects / designers. Digital libraries can be made attractive and usable by good information architects / web designers. Creating a good interface user information is crucial.
41 WHEN? When should libraries adapt to a more digital world?
42 When to adapt to the changing information landscape? Yesterday Today Now Tomorrow Always Permanently Continuously because “Change is the only constant”
43 HOW? Tools and methods for today’s libraries and librarians
44 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Integrated library management system, including »databases related to documents, users, other data »online pubic access catalogue(s) »integration with related computer programs »integration with Internet »integration with the WWW site of the library
45 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Internet + WWW and electronic mail as applications
46 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Secured computers for access by the public to Internet- based information resources
47 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Portal software to integrate access to distributed databases in one search action, as far as possible, in spite of technical difficulties, such as differences in the applied »Internet application protocols for communication and retrieval (telnet, HTTP, Z39.50, OAI-MHP…) »metadata schemes in the databases to improve retrieval (classifications, thesaurus systems, ontologies…)
48 Tools and methods for today’s librarian OpenURL resolving software to guide users to the most suitable sources that are appropriate for the specific library or specific user, for instance to cope with the multiple-copy problem (such as SFX software from Ex-Libris or V-link software from VUBIS-GEAC)
49 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Software for current awareness services, that includes functions to manage interest profiles of users. Ideally this is well integrated with »the Internet, »e-mail, »the WWW, »the integrated library management system
50 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Electronic learning environment software to assist users in their personal education and growth?
51 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Filtering software to protect the user from low-quality or inappropriate sources? Of course here we come close to the sensitive subject of censorship with all its advantages and disadvantages. Deciding on what is low quality or inappropriate for a particular user is not easy.
52 Tools and methods for today’s librarian Personalisation software to create a more personal interface to the information services that are offered through the Internet and the WWW.
53 HOW? Management of libraries when ICT is moving fast
54 Is more co-operation among organisations desirable? Any single library cannot well cope with the fast evolution due to ICT. Co-operation among organisations should be considered: »public libraries scientific libraries »libraries computer centers / WWW designers »libraries electronic learning centers Professional organisations can play a role here, like V.V.B.A.D. in Flanders, Belgium.
55 Can classical library personnel cope well with more ICT? The increasing role of ICT in libary can have serious consequences for library »personnel »management
57 How much will it cost to evolve towards digital libraries? Clearly ICT applications cost money: »hardware »software »skilled personnel »maintenance »user guidance »... However, budgets normally do NOT grow.
59 Classical character of librarians: “no computers please” The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers: interest and background in human sciences; less interested in computers and technology
60 Skills of today’s information manager: “more computers please” Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more: computer usage skills; information and communication technology skills
61 Classical character of librarians: document-oriented The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers: focused on static documents, cataloguing, conservation; less on relations and communication with users
62 Skills of today’s information manager: people-oriented Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more: communication skills: to communicate with users/clients and with higher management teaching skills: to guide users/clients to today’s information sources and services
63 Classical character of librarians: static The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers: attracted by a static, constant, conservative, “valuable” working environment; less interested in more dynamic, “fashionable” systems with a short life
64 Skills of today’s information manager: dynamic Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more: ability to adapt to continuous change; willingness to work in a dynamic environment and to learn continuously; working methods that are always “under construction” from collecting information “just in case” to offering appropriate information “just in time”
65 Classical character of librarians: passive The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers: focusing on static documents leads to static, passive views and behaviour; collecting information just in case someone may need it
66 Skills of today’s information manager: pro-active and flexible Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more: focusing on users means acting in a pro-active way: anticipating needs and developing appropriate services well in time; acting flexible
76 The clients of digital and hybrid libraries A more pro-active approach can be appropriate to bring clients to the library.
77 Conclusions related to the evolution of libraries WHY? The ICT revolution WHAT? 1. More ICT applications 2. More digital information sources WHERE? Libraries also on the WWW WHEN? Yesterday (or at least ASAP) HOW? More and more tools based on ICT HOW MUCH?Not less; we can only dream of more WHO? ICT-minded; adaptive; pro-active FOR WHOM?Ideally for everyone