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Abdominal of Trauma.

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Presentation on theme: "Abdominal of Trauma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abdominal of Trauma

2 Abdominal Trauma The abdomen is the “Black Box”
I.e., it is impossible to know what specific injuries have occurred at initial evaluation The key to saving lives in abdominal trauma is NOT to make an accurate diagnosis, but rather to recognize that there is an abdominal injury

3 Anatomy and Physiology

4 Signs and Symptoms of Abdominal Injuries
Blunt Trauma Significant mechanism Abdominal pain Distension Discoloration of abdomen or flank Unexplained shock Bent steering wheel Seat belt signs Peritoneal signs Penetrating trauma Visible truncal injury including chest or abdomen Abdominal pain Bleeding Impaled object Evisceration Shock

5 Peritoneal Signs Significant abdominal tenderness on palpation
Involuntary guarding Percussion tenderness Diminished or absent bowel sounds

6 Causes of Abdominal Injuries
BLUNT TRAUMA Motor vehicle accidents Auto vs. pedestrian Falls Blast injuries PENETRATING TRAUMA Gunshot wounds Stab wounds Shrapnel wounds Impalements

7 Diagnostic Procedures
Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage (DPL) Ultrasound (FAST) CT Scan Laparoscopy

8 Types of Injuries Blunt and penetrating abdominal injuries may be associated with extensive damage to the viscera resulting in massive blood loss. Blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries are related to the: Type of force applied Tissue density of structure injured (e.g., fluid-filled, gas-filled, solid, or encapsulated) The liver and spleen are the most commonly injured organs from blunt trauma. The liver, small bowel and stomach are the most commonly injured organs from penetrating trauma.

9 Blunt Abdominal Trauma
Compressive or shearing forces may deform and rupture abdominal organs Bruising across the lower abdomen is characteristic of a seat belt injury Visible signs may not reflect severity of underlying injury The Seat Belt Sign

10 Blunt Abdominal Trauma
Flank ecchymosis from internal bleeding

11 Penetrating Abdominal Trauma
Visible wounds may not reflect severity of underlying injury Significant internal bleeding likely Bowel injury likely Patient may be in shock

12 Impalement Injury

13 Impalement Injuries Care
DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT OR EXERT ANY FORCE UPON IT! Severe bleeding may occur causing shock Check pulses distal to impaled object Immobilize the object Apply bulky support bandages to hold in place

14 Evisceration Extrusion of abdominal contents secondary to penetrating abdominal trauma

15 Management of Evisceration Injuries
Use sterile side of dressing to place protruding organs near the wound (NOT into wound) Cover organs and wound completely with sterile or clean moist dressing DO NOT APPLY PRESSURE TO WOUND or expose internal parts Tie dressing tails loosely around wound Prepare evacuation to surgical assets

16 Hepatic Injuries Because of its size and location, the liver is frequently injured when force is applied to the abdomen. The friability of liver tissue, the extensive blood supply, and the blood storage capacity cause hepatic injury to result in profuse hemorrhage. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Upper right quadrant pain Abdominal wall muscle rigidity, spasm, or involuntary guarding Rebound tenderness Hypoactive or absent bowel sounds Signs of hemorrhage and/or hypovolemic shock

17 Splenic Injuries Injury to the spleen is usually associated with blunt trauma, but may also be associated with penetrating trauma. Fractures of the left 10th to 12th ribs are associated with underlying damage to the spleen. The most serious splenic injury is a severely fractured spleen or vascular tear, producing splenic ischemia and massive blood loss. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Signs of hemorrhage or hypovolemic shock Pain in the left shoulder (Kehr's sign) Tenderness in the upper left quadrant Abdominal wall muscle rigidity, spasm, or involuntary guarding

18 Hollow Organ Injuries Forces causing trauma to hollow organs may result in either blunt or penetrating injuries. The small bowel is the hollow organ most frequently injured. Deceleration may lead to shearing, which causes avulsion or tearing of the small bowel. Seat belts causing compression have resulted in rupture of the small bowel or colon. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Peritoneal irritation Evisceration of the small bowel or stomach Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage (DPL) may show presence of bile, feces, or food fibers

19 Renal Injuries The most common injury to the kidney is a blunt contusion, Suspect renal injury if there are fractures of the posterior ribs or lumbar vertebrae. Renal parenchyma can be damaged by shearing and compression forces causing lacerations or contusion. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Ecchymosis over the flank Flank or abdominal tenderness elicited during palpation Gross or microscopic hematuria—the absence of hematuria does not rule out renal injury

20 Bladder and Urethral Injuries
The majority of bladder injuries are blunt. If a distended bladder ruptures are perforated, urine is likely to extravasate into the abdomen. Most ruptures of the bladder occur in association with pelvic fractures. Urethral trauma is more common in males than females because the male urethra is longer and less protected. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Suprapubic pain Urge, but inability to urinate Hematuria (may be microscopic) Blood at the urethral meatus Blood in scrotum Rebound tenderness

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