3 FM with Sinusoidal modulating signal The FM modulated signal in time domain
4 Spectra of an FM Signal with Sinusoidal Modulation The following spectra show the effect of modulation index, , on the bandwidth of an FM signal, and the relative amplitudes of the carrier and sidebands1.0fBT
5 Noise in FM Receiversw(t): zero mean white Gaussian noise with PSD = No/2s(t): carrier = fc, BW = BTBPF: [fC - BT/2 - fC + BT/2]Amplitude limiter: remove amplitude variation.DiscriminatorSlope network : varies linearly with frequencyEnvelope detector
6 Noise in FM ReceiversFM signal:Filtered noise n(t):
7 Noise in FM ReceiversPhasor diagram interpretation of noisy demodulator input:Due to the PM generated by the noise, noise appears at the demodulator output.But the FM demodulator is sensitive to the instantaneous frequency of the input signal.The instantaneous frequency is the first derivative of the phase of input signal.
8 Noise in FM ReceiversThe instantaneous frequency is the first derivative of the phase of input signal.Derivation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by (j2πf) in the frequency domain.Multiplication by (j2πf) means that the frequency response of derivation is:Recall, power spectral density of the output process equals to the PSD of the input process multiplied by the squared magnitude of the frequency response H(f) of the LTI two-port.
9 Noise in FM ReceiversRecall, power spectral density of the output process equals to the PSD of the input process multiplied by the squared magnitude of the frequency response H(f) of the LTI two-port.Therefore, the PSD SN0(f) of noise at an FM receiver output has a square-law dependence on the operating frequency.The high-frequency noise is dominant at the output of an FM receiver
15 Noise in FM Receivers and for wide-band FM we may write: Figure of merit for frequency modulationIf the (SNR)C is high enough and exceeds the threshold level then:where P denotes the average power of message signal m(t), kf is the frequency sensitivity of FM modulator and W denotes the bandwidth of message signal.Since:and for wide-band FM we may write:
16 Noise in FM Receivers Figure of merit for frequency modulation we obtain by substituting:where β is the Modulation Index.Note: An increase in the transmission bandwidth BT provides a corresponding quadratic increase in the output signal-to-noise ratio (or in the figure of merit) of the FM system.
17 FM threshold effectThe figure of merit discussed above is valid only if the carrier-to-noise ratio (SNR)C is high compared with unity.It has been found experimentally that as (SNR)C is decreased below a threshold, each FM demodulator, either coherent or non-coherent, breaks:At first isolated clicks are heard and if the (SNR)C is decreased further, the clicks rapidly merge into a crackling. sound
18 FM threshold effect A qualitative explanation If (SNR)C is small then the noise becomes dominant and the phasor representation and the decomposition of noise into a PM and AM are not valid any more.The phase of noise is a random variable and it may take any value.Recall, the FM demodulator is sensitive to the derivate of phase.When the phase of demodulator input varies suddenly by 2π due to the noise then an impulse, i.e., click appears at the receiver output.
19 Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM systems Recall: The power spectral density SN0(f) of noise at an FM receiver output has a square law dependence on the operating frequency.The high-frequency noise is dominant at the output of an FM receiver.The power spectral density of message signals usually falls off at higher frequencies.Generally, the most part of a message signal is in the low-frequency region.These facts may be exploited to improve the noise performance of FM systems
20 Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM systems Basic ideaApply a filter at the demodulator output which reduces the high frequency content of the output spectrum.To compensate this attenuation, a pre-emphasis must be applied to the high-frequency signals at the transmitterPre-emphasis at the transmitter:A filter that artificially emphasize the high-frequency components of the message signal prior to the modulation.
21 Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM systems De-emphasis at the receiver:An inverse operation performed by a filter placed after the demodulation.The de-emphasis filter restores the original signal by de-emphasizing the high-frequency components.Effects of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis filters cancel each other:
22 Use of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in an FM system
23 Comparison of noise performance of CW systems Note: Threshold problem is more serious in FM modulation than in AM. The higher the β, the better the FM noise performance. But the price to be paid is the wider transmission bandwidth