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The role of gendered attitudes towards women, and experience with HIV/AIDS.

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Presentation on theme: "The role of gendered attitudes towards women, and experience with HIV/AIDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 The role of gendered attitudes towards women, and experience with HIV/AIDS

2 CountryDHS Year TFRIFS among Males 15- 24 IFS among Females 15- 24 Uganda20066.74.64.2 Congo (DRC)20076.36.15.8 Zambia20076.24.23.9 Kenya2008- Zimbabwe2005/063.8 3.2 Namibia2006/

3  Relationship between ideal family size and several social factors well-established –  Urban life  Wealth  Female education  Social determinants of IFS for young Ugandan males?  Role of gendered attitudes?  Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic had any dampening effect of fertility ideals?

4 15-19 (n=582) 20-24 (n=397) 15-24 (970) Mean Household Size7.66.17.1 % w/no education, or some Primary schooling54.1 % w/ completed Primary schooling or Higher45.9 % w/ some Secondary schooling or Higher26.136.832.7 % Currently Employed83.394.487.6 % never married97.95380.5 % who have not yet had intercourse66.113.845.9 Of those had intercourse, mean age 1 st intercourse15.8 yrs % who plan to wait until marriage for sex7571.274.6 *Source: 2006 DHS Uganda Data, n=869

5 Wealth (based on HH assets) poorest poor middle rich richest Number 166 188 166 205 249 (%) 17 19 17 21 26 Ideal Family Size 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.2 Urban Rural 175 799 18 82 3.9 4.7 Religion Catholic Protestant Muslim Pentecostal 360 312 117 42 43 38 14 5 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.9 Incomplete Primary Education of less Complete Primary Ed or Higher 530 449 54 46 4.8 4.4

6 Since 1998, DHS added 3 domains  Decision-making (self, spouse, joint, others)  Attitudes: women’s right to refuse sex  Attitudes: men’s right to beat women

7 Covariate (% responding yes)Betap-valueN data set Joint – large purchases (16%)-.0329.858915 Joint - daily purchases (10%).121.560 Joint – women’s earnings (21%).0244.884 Joint – on visits (22%)-.136.412 Joint – number of children to have (40%)-.162.249 1 joint decision vs none-.172.212

8 Covariate (% responding yes)Betap-valueN (data set) Husband – large purchases (82%)-.0983.576915 Husband - daily purchases (29%).311.040 Husband – women’s earnings (35%)-.141.330 Husband – on visits (63%).0078.956 Husband – number of children to have (52%)-.112.417

9 Covariate (% who agree that if she refuses sex, husband has …) Betap-valueN (data set) Right to get angry (46%).233.123852 Right to refuse financial assistance (16%)-.125.539 Right to have sex with another (20%).0717.716 Right to use force for sex (8.5%).337.223 Agrees with 1 of these rights (52.5%).304.045 Agrees with any 2 or more (20.1%).0592.743

10 Agrees that husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: % responding “Yes” Burns the food18.7 Argues with him42.1 Goes out without telling him45.8 Neglects the children49.5 Refuses to have sex with him21.9 Agrees with any justification67.5 *Source: 2006 DHS Uganda Data, n=979

11 CovariateBetaP-valueN (dataset) Agrees with wife BEAT for any reason.438.0028970

12 CovariatesBetaP-valueN (dataset) Education (completed primary or more)-.292.041969 Wealth (dummies/ poorest as ref) poorer-.472.036 middle-.466.049 rich-.629.006 richest-.599.017 Urban (vs rural)-.7077.001 Radio exposure-.173.029 Knows someone who has Died of AIDS-.299.041 Accepts wife BEATING for 1+ reasons.304.038

13  Basu (1999) – noted men in India with educated sisters are more likely to marry educated women – more predictive than men’s education alone  How does family educational attainment, net of others factors, impact young men’s ideal family size?

14 CovariatesBetaP-valueN (dataset) HH-Womens ED-.565<.0001856 HH-Womens ED-.318.0106856 Rural.721.0015 Knows someone who has died of AIDS-.394.0105 Accepts wife BEATING for 1+ reasons.315.0452 Education (completed primary or more)-.268.107

15  Gender variables within the DHS that provide insight on masculinity are limited, but Attitudes to Wife beating have consistent significant effects in models on young men’s ideal family size;  The analysis does underscore the intersections between young men’s attitudes towards women’s subordination, and their desire for larger families – net of other social factors.  Differences in values between young men with educated female family members, versus those without, warrants further investigation for it’s affects on young men’s ideals.  The experience of AIDS death in Uganda does appear to have a dampening affect on ideal family size among young men.

16  Further formative work on masculinity and femininity ideals, and identification of variables for large-scale, comparative surveys, would enable us to better study gender change across Africa.  The African Social Research Initiative (ASRI) at UM, with colleagues in Uganda, Ghana and South Africa, is working towards this – with a meeting in Accra next July – and keen to engage other collaborators. Thank you

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