Presentation on theme: "The role of gendered attitudes towards women, and experience with HIV/AIDS."— Presentation transcript:
The role of gendered attitudes towards women, and experience with HIV/AIDS
CountryDHS Year TFRIFS among Males 15- 24 IFS among Females 15- 24 Uganda20066.74.64.2 Congo (DRC)20076.36.15.8 Zambia20076.24.23.9 Kenya2008-094.63.73.4 Zimbabwe2005/063.8 3.2 Namibia2006/073.63.12.4
Relationship between ideal family size and several social factors well-established – Urban life Wealth Female education Social determinants of IFS for young Ugandan males? Role of gendered attitudes? Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic had any dampening effect of fertility ideals?
15-19 (n=582) 20-24 (n=397) 15-24 (970) Mean Household Size18.104.22.168 % w/no education, or some Primary schooling54.1 % w/ completed Primary schooling or Higher45.9 % w/ some Secondary schooling or Higher26.136.832.7 % Currently Employed83.394.487.6 % never married97.95380.5 % who have not yet had intercourse66.113.845.9 Of those had intercourse, mean age 1 st intercourse15.8 yrs % who plan to wait until marriage for sex7571.274.6 *Source: 2006 DHS Uganda Data, n=869
Wealth (based on HH assets) poorest poor middle rich richest Number 166 188 166 205 249 (%) 17 19 17 21 26 Ideal Family Size 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.2 Urban Rural 175 799 18 82 3.9 4.7 Religion Catholic Protestant Muslim Pentecostal 360 312 117 42 43 38 14 5 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.9 Incomplete Primary Education of less Complete Primary Ed or Higher 530 449 54 46 4.8 4.4
Since 1998, DHS added 3 domains Decision-making (self, spouse, joint, others) Attitudes: women’s right to refuse sex Attitudes: men’s right to beat women
Covariate (% responding yes)Betap-valueN data set Joint – large purchases (16%)-.0329.858915 Joint - daily purchases (10%).121.560 Joint – women’s earnings (21%).0244.884 Joint – on visits (22%)-.136.412 Joint – number of children to have (40%)-.162.249 1 joint decision vs none-.172.212
Covariate (% responding yes)Betap-valueN (data set) Husband – large purchases (82%)-.0983.576915 Husband - daily purchases (29%).311.040 Husband – women’s earnings (35%)-.141.330 Husband – on visits (63%).0078.956 Husband – number of children to have (52%)-.112.417
Covariate (% who agree that if she refuses sex, husband has …) Betap-valueN (data set) Right to get angry (46%).233.123852 Right to refuse financial assistance (16%)-.125.539 Right to have sex with another (20%).0717.716 Right to use force for sex (8.5%).337.223 Agrees with 1 of these rights (52.5%).304.045 Agrees with any 2 or more (20.1%).0592.743
Agrees that husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: % responding “Yes” Burns the food18.7 Argues with him42.1 Goes out without telling him45.8 Neglects the children49.5 Refuses to have sex with him21.9 Agrees with any justification67.5 *Source: 2006 DHS Uganda Data, n=979
CovariateBetaP-valueN (dataset) Agrees with wife BEAT for any reason.438.0028970
CovariatesBetaP-valueN (dataset) Education (completed primary or more)-.292.041969 Wealth (dummies/ poorest as ref) poorer-.472.036 middle-.466.049 rich-.629.006 richest-.599.017 Urban (vs rural)-.7077.001 Radio exposure-.173.029 Knows someone who has Died of AIDS-.299.041 Accepts wife BEATING for 1+ reasons.304.038
Basu (1999) – noted men in India with educated sisters are more likely to marry educated women – more predictive than men’s education alone How does family educational attainment, net of others factors, impact young men’s ideal family size?
CovariatesBetaP-valueN (dataset) HH-Womens ED-.565<.0001856 HH-Womens ED-.318.0106856 Rural.721.0015 Knows someone who has died of AIDS-.394.0105 Accepts wife BEATING for 1+ reasons.315.0452 Education (completed primary or more)-.268.107
Gender variables within the DHS that provide insight on masculinity are limited, but Attitudes to Wife beating have consistent significant effects in models on young men’s ideal family size; The analysis does underscore the intersections between young men’s attitudes towards women’s subordination, and their desire for larger families – net of other social factors. Differences in values between young men with educated female family members, versus those without, warrants further investigation for it’s affects on young men’s ideals. The experience of AIDS death in Uganda does appear to have a dampening affect on ideal family size among young men.
Further formative work on masculinity and femininity ideals, and identification of variables for large-scale, comparative surveys, would enable us to better study gender change across Africa. The African Social Research Initiative (ASRI) at UM, with colleagues in Uganda, Ghana and South Africa, is working towards this – with a meeting in Accra next July – and keen to engage other collaborators. Thank you