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Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation Mr. Booth’s World History 1300 – 1500 CE
Q of D: Analyzing 3 Causes of the Protestant Reformation Directions: Write the following questions and answer them. You may use p. 488 for help. (3-4 minutes) __________________________________________ -By 1500, many forces weakened the Catholic Church. 1.How did the Renaissance weaken the church? 2.How did German rulers want to challenge the political power of the church? 3.What practices of the Catholic Church in the 1500’s might have upset churchgoers?
ANSWERS 1.Secular during Ren. (Here and the Now instead of religion) 2.Germans resented distant control; new ideas were weakening the Church 3.Popes pursued worldly affairs; some priests drank and gambled
2 OBJECTIVES TODAY 1.Catholic Church Hierarchy – People were – I.M.A.D! ______________________________________________ 2. Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation. Luther’s Ideas were F.U.N.
Protestant Reformation: The Beginning - Protestant = someone who protested the Catholic Church -Reformation = When people demand changes -The Protestant Reformation began because the Catholic Church made Protestants say I.M.A.D!
I =Indulgences A monk/friar named Johann Tetzel was raising money Why? To rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. To raise money he sold Indulgences: Certificates of Pardon to absolve sin Who would this anger?
M = Merchants -Merchants want usury Usury = lending money & charging interest -Church says usury is wrong… Hypocrisy? Q: Who would this anger?
A = Absolute Power and Wealth of Church Why was the Catholic Church so powerful in Europe? 1.For many the church represented the chance to go to heaven and one day go to heaven. 2.Pope had power over the king because of the threat of excommunication.
D = Domination of the Church by Italians (Germans/English are mad) People of Germany and England resented paying taxes to Rome because they did nothing for them. “Rome was way down there, and we’re way up here.” What can you conclude about I.M.A.D.?
Martin Luther: His 3 Ideas were F.U.N. FUNFUN 1. Faith only saves people - not good works -Catholic church = salvation by following church -Q: Who will not like this idea of Luther’s? Why? 2. Ultimate authority for Christians = Bible -Q: Who will this anger? Who did Catholics think was the authority? -Catholic Church says Pope is Ultimate Authority 3. Nobody is more important in God’s eyes -All people with faith are equal. Therefore, people did not need priest to interpret the Bible for them.
How did Luther’s Ideas Spread? Luther’s ideas spread quickly with the help of the printing press (Guternberg) AND Millions of people sided with Luther against the Roman Catholic Church.
The Peasants’ Revolt/Edict of Worms In 1524, German peasants were excited about Luther’s 95 theses. Then, something happened! Peasant Revolt Across Germany: – Raided monasteries, pillaging, and burning. The prince’s armies crushed the revolt – 100,000 people may have been killed Edict of Worms: Luther outlawed as a heretic and excommunicated. “No one should shelter and feed Luther – Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony does Heretic: Different views then the church Legacy of Edict of Worms: No one listens and the denomination of Lutheranism begins.
Protestantism 1.Eastern Orthodox (East-West Schism) 2.Roman Catholic 3.Protestant- (Reformation/16 th century) Lutheran Anglican – Episcopalian – Baptist – Methodist – Pentecostal Calvin – Presbyterian
Henry VIII King of England in 1509 (devout Catholic) Wife - Catherine of Aragon Daughter - Mary – but no woman ever successfully claimed the English throne. He wants a son! – so he asked the Pope to annul or cancel his marriage, Pope says no
Henry VIII’s Six Wives
King Henry VIII Dad of the Anglican Chruch D- Divorce. Henry wants one, pope says no A – Anglican Church, Henry in charge, no Pope D- Did away with Catholic Church’s land and wealth of church
John Calvin From France Broke from Catholic Church and started his own Published Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin’s Ideas P- Predestination- You don’t get there by good works, you get there because God chooses you O- Our moral lives reveal if we’re chosen by God W – Work ethic than honors God
Protestantism Today 400 Million Protestants Worldwide In the U.S., Religious adherents are: – 21% are Catholic – 23% Protestant – 14% Non-Christian – 28% Independent Christian – 14% Non-denominational
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