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Organized groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

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1 Organized groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
Tissues Organized groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

2 Tissues Tissues are organized into organs.
Organs can contain more than one type Four main types: Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue

3 Epithelial Tissue Also called epithelium (epithe = covering)
Lining, covering, and glandular tissue of body Functions include protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion Special Properties: Avascular Reproduce rapidly Packed together tightly

4 Epithelial Tissues Each epithelium has two names:
One signifies the number of cell layers : simple epithelium (one layer of cells) stratified epithelium (more than one layer) The second name describes the shape of its cells Squamous cells (flattened like fish scales) Cuboidal cells (cube-shaped like dice) Columnar cells (shaped like columns)

5 Simple squamous epithelium
Single layer Thin squamous cells resting on basement membrane Forms serous membranes that line the body cavity In air sacs of lungs

6 Simple cuboidal epithelium
Single layer Cuboidal cells resting on basement membrane Common in glands and ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules

7 Simple columnar epithelium
Single layer Columnar cells Goblet cells that secrete mucus are in this layer Lines digestive tract Mucous membranes that line body cavities

8 Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Vary in height so false impression that stratified Functions in secretion and absorption Lines respiratory tract

9 Stratified squamous epithelium
Most common stratified epithelium Found in areas that receive friction, like esophagus, mouth, and skin

10 Transitional Epithelium
Highly modified stratified squamous epithelium Forms lining of urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra Basal layer = columnar / cuboidal When organ is distended (stretched) with urine, the cells flatten and become squamous-like Allows ureter wall to stretch with greater volumes of urine

11 Glandular Epithelium Gland – one or more cells that make and secrete a product Secretion – product of gland that contains proteins in aqueous solution Endocrine gland – ductless, diffuse secretion (hormones) directly into the blood (ex: thyroid, adrenal, pituitary glands) Exocrine gland – retain ducts, secretions empty through ducts to epithelial surface (ex: sweat glands, liver, pancreas)

12 Connective Tissue Connects body parts
Most abundant and widely distributed tissue Functions include protecting, supporting, and binding together other tissues Well vascularized (exceptions tendons, ligaments; cartilage is avascular) Connective tissues includes cells plus extracellular matrix – nonliving substance outside cells

13 Extracellular Matrix Produced by connective tissue and secreted to exterior Ground substance composed largely of water and proteins Cell adhesion proteins allow connective tissue cells to attach to matrix fibers The following types of connective tissue are discussed in order of most rigid to softest

14 Bone Bone – osseus tissue, composed of bone cells in cavities called lacunae, surrounded by hard matrix of calcium salts and collagen fibers Protects and supports body organs

15 Cartilage Less hard and more flexible than bone
Chondrocyte – mature cartilage cell Hyaline cartilage – most widespread Abundant collagen fibers in a matrix with glassy appearance (hyalin = glass) Forms larynx, connects ribs to sternum, covers bones to form joints Fetus skeleton made of hyaline cartilage

16 Hyaline Cartilage

17 Fibrocartilage Highly compressible Forms disks between vertebrae

18 Elastic Cartilage Found in a structure with elasticity
Supports external ear

19 Dense Connective Tissue
Also called dense fibrous tissue Collagen fibers as main matrix element Fibroblasts – fiber forming cells between collagen fibers Two types: Tendons – connect skeletal muscles to bones Ligaments – connect bones to bones at joints Ligaments more stretchy (more elastic fibers) than tendons

20 Dense Fibrous Tissue

21 Loose Connective Tissue
Softer, fewer fibers and more cells than other connective tissues except blood Areolar tissue – most widely distributed connective tissue Soft, pliable, “cobweb”-like tissue Cushions and protects body organs it wraps Provides reservoir of water and salts for surrounding tissue site where nutrients are obtained and wastes released

22 Areolar Tissue

23 Loose Connective Tissue
Adipose Tissue – commonly called fat Areolar tissue in which fat cells predominate Insulates body and protects it from extreme T Stored in body and cushions some organs

24 Adipose Tissue Oil occupies most of a fat cell’s volume and compresses the nucleus, displacing it to one side

25 Blood Blood – vascular tissue; consists of blood cells surrounded by a matrix called blood plasma Atypical connective tissue Transport vehicle for cardiovascular system


27 Muscle Tissue Muscle tissues are highly specialized to contract or shorten to produce movement

28 Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle tissue – skeletal muscle organs connected to the skeleton. Controlled voluntarily Form flesh of the body – muscular system Contraction leads to pulling on bone or skin Result is movement or changes in expression Cells are long, cylindrical, multinucleate, and have obvious striations

29 Skeletal Muscle Long Cylindrical Multinucleate Striations
Called “muscle fibers”

30 Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart
Contractions lead to propelling of blood through the blood vessels Cardiac muscle cells are uninucleate, short, branching with striations and fit tightly together at intercalated disks Gap junctions with ion flow Involuntarily controlled

31 Cardiac Muscle Cells short Striated Branching Uninucleate
Intercalated Discs

32 Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle (Visceral Muscle) – found in walls of hollow organs (stomach, uterus, blood vessels, etc.) Contractions lead to the organ constricting or dilating so substances are propelled No striations, uninucleate, spindle-shaped

33 Smooth Muscle No striations Uninucleate Pointed ends (spindle shaped)

34 Nervous Tissue Nervous Tissue – made of cells called neurons
Neurons receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of body to another Neurons and supporting cells (insulate and protect neurons) make up the nervous system: the brain, spinal chord, and nerves Cytoplasm drawn out in extensions allows neurons to conduct impulses long distances

35 Neuron Neurons in human hippocampus

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