Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“Cartilage and Bone”.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "“Cartilage and Bone”."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Cartilage and Bone”

2 Cartilage Embryo More prevalent than in adult
Skeleton initially mostly cartilage Bone replaces cartilage in fetal and childhood periods

3 Location of cartilage in adults
External ear Nose “Articular” – covering the ends of most bones and movable joints “Costal” – connecting ribs to sternum Larynx - voice box

4 Epiglottis – flap keeping food out of lungs
Cartilaginous rings holding open the air tubes of the respiratory system (trachea and bronchi) Intervertebral discs Pubic symphysis Articular discs such as meniscus in knee joint

5 Remember the four basic types of tissue… Epithelium Connective tissue
Connective tissue proper Cartilage Bone Blood Muscle tissue Nervous tissue

6 cartilage

7 Cartilage is connective tissue
Cells called chondrocytes Abundant extracellular matrix Fibers: collagen & elastin Jellylike ground substance of complex sugar molecules 60-80% water (responsible for the resilience) No nerves or vessels (hyaline cartilage)

8 Types of cartilage: 3 Hyaline cartilage: flexible and resilient
Chondrocytes appear spherical Lacuna – cavity in matrix holding chondrocyte Collagen the only fiber Elastic cartilage: highly bendable Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers Epiglottis, larynx and outer ear Fibrocartilage: resists compression and tension Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with rows of chondrocytes (in matrix) Knee menisci and annunulus fibrosis of intervertebral discs

9 Hyaline Cartilage

10 Elastic Cartilage

11 Fibrocartilage

12 Locations of the different kinds of cartilage

13 Before we look at collagen pic…
Hyaline cartilage: flexible and resilient Chondrocytes appear spherical Lacuna – cavity in matrix holding chondrocyte Collagen the only fiber Elastic cartilage: highly bendable Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers Epiglottis and larynx Fibrocartilage: resists compression and tension Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with rows of chondrocytes (in matrix) Knee menisci and annulus fibrosis of intervertebral discs

14 Triple helix of collagen molecules form fibril
Fibrils aggregate into collagen fibers

15 Growth of cartilage Appositional Interstitial
“Growth from outside” Chrondroblasts in perichondrium (external covering of cartilage) secrete matrix Interstitial “Growth from within” Chondrocytes within divide and secrete new matrix Cartilage stops growing in late teens (chrondrocytes stop dividing) Regenerates poorly in adults

16 Now about bones…like other connective tissue: cells separated by extracellular matrix with collagen but also mineral crystals Bone

17 Bones Functions Support
Movement: muscles attach by tendons and use bones as levers to move body Protection Skull – brain Vertebrae – spinal cord Rib cage – thoracic organs Mineral storage Calcium and phosphorus Released as ions into blood as needed Blood cell formation and energy storage Bone marrow: red makes blood, yellow stores fat

18 Classification of bones by shape
Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Pneumatized bones Sesamoid bones-embedded in tendon (Short bones include sesmoid bones)


20 Gross anatomy of bones Compact bone
Spongy (trabecular) bone-red bone marrow Blood vessels Medullary cavity-yellow bone marrow Membranes Periosteum Endosteum

21 Flat bones Spongy bone is called diploe when its in flat bones
Have bone marrow but no marrow cavity

22 Long bones Tubular diaphysis or shaft
Epiphyses at the ends: covered with “articular” (=joint) cartilage Epiphyseal line in adults Kids: epiphyseal growth plate (disc of hyaline cartilage that grows to lengthen the bone) Blood vessels Nutrient arteries and veins through nutrient foramen


24 Periosteum Endosteum Connective tissue membrane
Covers entire outer surface of bone except at epiphyses Two sublayers 1. Outer fibrous layer of dense fibrous connective tissue 2. Inner (deep) cellular osteogenic layer on the compact bone containing osteoprogenitor cells (stem cells that give rise to osteoblasts) Osteoblasts: bone depositing cells Also osteoclasts: bone destroying cells (from the white blood cell line) Secured to bone by perforating fibers (Sharpey’s fibers) Endosteum Covers the internal bone surfaces Is also osteogenic

25 The Skeleton Is Divided Into Two Distinct Parts:
The axial skeleton consists of bones that form the axis of the body and support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk. Click on these links to read about the axial parts of the body. The skull The sternum The ribs The backbone

26 The Second Part of the Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. Click on these links to read about the appendicular parts of the body. The lower body The upper body The shoulders The pelvic area

27 Terms (examples) chondro refers to cartilage osteo refers to bone
chondrocyte endochondral perichondrium osteo refers to bone osteogenesis osteocyte periostium blast refers to precursor cell or one that produces something osteoblast cyte refers to cell Osteocyte

28 Martini p 128, Table 5.1, Common Bone Marking Terminology
(for figure see next slide)


30 Compact bone Osteons: pillars Lamellae: concentric tubes
Haversian canals-blood vessels Osteocytes-bone cell

31 Isolated osteon: Nutrients diffuse from vessels in central canal
Alternating direction of collagen fibers increases resistance to twisting forces

32 Spongy bone- flexibility, lightweight bone
Layers of lamellae and osteocytes Seem to align along stress lines

33 Chemical composition of bones
Cells, matrix of collagen fibers and ground substance (organic: 35%) Contribute to the flexibility and tensile strength Mineral crystals (inorganic: 65%) Primarily calcium phosphate Lie in and around the collagen fibrils in extracellular matrix Contribute to bone hardness Small amount of water

34 Bone development Osteogenesis: “formation of bone”
From osteoblasts Bone tissue first appears in week 8 (embryo) Ossification: “to turn into bone” Intramembranous ossification (also called “dermal” since occurs deep in dermis): forms directly from mesenchyme (not modeled first in cartilage) Most skull bones except a few at base Clavicles (collar bones) Sesamoid bones (like the patella) Endochondral ossification: modeled in hyaline cartilage then replaced by bone tissue All the rest of the bones

35 Remember the three germ tissues…
Ectoderm - epithelial Endoderm - epithelial Mesoderm is a mesenchyme tissue Mesenchyme cells are star shaped and do not attach to one another, therefore migrate freely From the last slide: Intramembranous ossification: forms directly from mesenchyme (not modeled first in cartilage) Most skull bones except a few at base Clavicles (collar bones) Sesmoid bones (like the patella)

36 Intramembranous ossification Occurs mainly in the skull (flat bones)

37 Endochondral ossification
Modeled in hyaline cartilage, called cartilage model Gradually replaced by bone: begins late in second month of development Perichondrium is invaded by vessels and becomes periosteum Osteoblasts in periosteum lay down collar of bone around diaphysis Calcification in center of diaphysis Primary ossification centers Secondary ossification in epiphyses Epiphyseal growth plates close at end of adolescence Diaphysis and epiphysis fuse No more bone lengthening See next slide

38 Endochondral ossification
Stages 1-3 during fetal week 9 through 9th month Stage 5 is process of long bone growth during childhood & adolescence Stage 4 is just before birth

39 Organization of cartilage within the epiphyseal plate of a growing long bone

40 Epiphyseal growth plates in child, left, and lines in adult, right (see arrows)

41 Factors regulating bone growth
Vitamin D: hormone that regulates calcium levels Parathyroid hormone (PTH): increases blood calcium (some of this comes out of bone) Calcitonin: decreases blood calcium (opposes PTH) Growth hormone & thyroid hormone: modulate bone growth Sex hormones: growth spurt at adolescense and closure of epiphyseal growth plate.

42 Bone remodeling Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Triggers
Bone resorption, breaks down/destroys old bone cells Osteoblasts Bone deposition, builds bones Triggers Hormonal: parathyroid hormone Mechanical stress Osteocytes are closely related to osteoblasts

43 Types of Body Joints Synarthroses- no movement
Amphiarthroses- minimal movement Diarthroses- free movement, most common type in body

44 Synarthrotic Joints Fibrous connective tissue grows between articulating bones in the skull. The joints in the skull are called sutures.

45 Amphiarthrotic Joints
This joint type uses cartilage to connect articulating bones, allowing for some movement. Found in the pubic symphisis , the vertebrae, and intercostal (between ribs) cartilage.

46 Diarthrotic Joints Free moving
Found along with tendons and ligaments between bones of the extremities. Contains two layers of articular cartilage with a synovial membrane in between. Flexion- bending a joint Extension- straightening a joint

47 Types of Diarthrotic Joints
Ball and Socket- Shoulder, Hip Hinge- elbow and knee Pivot- neck (allows for head rotation) Saddle- phlanges Gliding- vertebrae Condyloid- radius/wrist joint

48 Repair of bone fractures (breaks)
Simple- bone doesn’t penetrate skin Compound- bone penetrates skin

49 Disorders of cartilage and bone
Defective collagen Numerous genetic disorders eg. Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) – AD (autosomal dominant) eg. Ehlers-Danlos (rubber man) Defective endochondral ossification eg. Achondroplasia (short –limb dwarfism) - AD Inadequate calcification (requires calcium and vitamin D) Osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults Rickets in children Note: “AD” here means autosomal dominant inheritance

50 Pagets disease – excessive turnover, abnormal bone
(continued) Pagets disease – excessive turnover, abnormal bone Osteosarcoma – bone cancer, affecting children primarily Osteoporosis – usually age related, esp. females Low bone mass and increased fractures Resorption outpaces bone deposition- osteoclasts outpace the osteoblasts Rheumatoid Arthritis- auto-immune disease in which the body will attack its own joints.

51 Normal bone Osteoporotic bone

52 Difference between male and female skeletons
Males are generally larger Males have deeper, narrower pelvis, females are broader Female pelvic inlet is wider, to compensate for baby’s head. This also means that the pubic angle is wider in females.

53 Bones to Know for Bone I.D. Test
Skull- frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, nasal, sphenoid, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxillary, mandible Upper Body- clavicle, scapula, sternum, humerus, vertebral column, costals, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals Lower Body-illium, sacrum, ischium, coccyx, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals

Download ppt "“Cartilage and Bone”."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google