4 Connective Tissue Found everywhere in the body Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissuesFunctionsBinds body tissues togetherSupports the bodyProvides protection
5 Connective Tissue Characteristics Variations in blood supplySome tissue types are well vascularizedSome have a poor blood supply or are avascularExtracellular matrixNon-living material that surrounds living cells
6 Extracellular Matrix Two main elements Ground substance—mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide moleculesFibersProduced by the cellsThree typesCollagen (white) fibersElastic (yellow) fibersReticular fibers
8 Connective Tissue Types Bone (osseous tissue)Composed ofBone cells in lacunae (cavities)Hard matrix of calcium saltsLarge numbers of collagen fibersFunctions to protect and support the body
9 Bone cells inlacunaeCentral canalLacunaeLamella(a) Diagram: BonePhotomicrograph: Cross-sectional viewof ground bone (300×).Figure 3.19a
10 Connective Tissue Types Hyaline cartilageMost common type of cartilageComposed ofAbundant collagen fibersRubbery matrixLocationsLarynxEntire fetal skeleton prior to birthFunctions as a more flexible skeletal element than bone
14 Connective Tissue Types Dense connective tissue (dense fibrous tissue)Main matrix element is collagen fiberFibroblasts are cells that make fibersLocationsTendons—attach skeletal muscle to boneLigaments—attach bone to bone at jointsDermis—lower layers of the skin
17 Two types of Dense Connective Tissue REGULARParallel bundles of collagen; packed tightly togetherExtremely strong & toughAvascular (why????)Found in tendons & ligaments for a strong rope-like connectionDifferentiate: tendon, ligamentIRREGULARNon-parallel bundles of collagen, arranged in a web like meshGreat strengthVascular (why????)Composes the dermis of the skin
18 Which is which: regular or irregular dense connective tissue?
19 Connective Tissue Types Loose connective tissue typesAreolar tissueMost widely distributed connective tissueSoft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”Functions as a packing tissueContains all fiber typesCan soak up excess fluid (causes edema)
20 MucosaepitheliumLaminapropriaElasticfibersCollagenfibersFibers ofmatrixFibroblastnucleiNuclei offibroblasts(e) Diagram: AreolarPhotomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, asoft packaging tissue of the body (300×).Figure 3.19e
21 Connective Tissue Types Loose connective tissue typesAdipose tissueMatrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominateMany cells contain large lipid depositsFunctionsInsulates the bodyProtects some organsServes as a site of fuel storage
22 Nuclei offat cellsVacuolecontainingfat dropletNuclei offat cellsVacuolecontainingfat droplet(f) Diagram: AdiposePhotomicrograph: Adipose tissue from thesubcutaneous layer beneath the skin (430×).Figure 3.19f
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