HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Virus that damages the immune system Does not mean that you have AIDS HIV is not fatal Transmitted through unprotected sex, contact with blood, semen, and breast milk AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Occurs when HIV goes untreated The immune system is so weak that it cannot fight off infections
HIV originated in south-east Cameroon around 1930. The virus most likely jumped to humans when humans hunted chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood.
In the 1970s HIV is carried from an infected person who travels from Cameroon to Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The virus enters into a wide urban sexual network and spreads quickly, creating an epidemic. Epidemic: a rapid development, spread, or growth of something, especially something unpleasant
First carried into the eastern countries of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Kenya in the 1970s, but not considered an epidemic until the 1980s. Thought to have spread so quickly because of labor migration (truck drivers, soldiers, traders and miners) lack of circumcision, high incidents of rape, and sex workers. In Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya, 85% of sex workers were infected with HIV by 1986.
HIV was much more prevalent in Eastern Africa than in Western Africa. Long distances between cities The difficulty of travel Violence and insecurity
By the 1980s, there were cases of HIV in North America, South America, Europe, Africa and Australia.
HIV wasn’t diagnosed until 1984 Misconceptions: Transmission through contact Overweight people cannot get HIV Only promiscuous people can get HIV No Cure=No Reason to Get Tested No preventative steps taken
If you were a politician in an African country effected by HIV/AIDS, how would you handle the problem? A. Create an educational program to prevent the spread of the virus B. Ban all at risk behavior indefinitely to prevent the spread of the virus C. Move all infected people to their own country D. Do nothing And be prepared to justify your answer.
Politicians were reluctant to admit to a HIV epidemic in their country. President Mobutu of the Congo banned the subject from the press for four years between 1983 and 1987 Zimbabwean doctors were instructed not to mention AIDS on death certificates. DENY, DENY, DENY!
“The fear of offending powerful religious constituencies… created gridlock in some national governments, and for good reason. Conservative lobbies have shown that they can obstruct everything from family life and education to condom promotion if they chose”. President of Malawi, Bingu wa Mutharika, on a billboard
“AIDS is not spreading like bush fire in Africa. It is malaria and other tropical diseases that are killing millions of children every day.” ~ Halfdan Mahler, from the World Health Organization, 1985. “Everything is getting worse and worse in AIDS and all of us have been underestimating it, and I in particular.” ~ Halfdan Mahler, from the World Health Organization, 1986.
UNAIDS Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria World Health Organization President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (Bush) (RED)
Drug treatments that help control the disease are now available to patients in the developed world Developed World: the nations of the world which are considered more economically and technologically advanced; industrialized nations Third World: the underdeveloped nations of the world, especially those with widespread poverty The cost of such treatments are too costly for most African governments to purchase