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1 Normal Newborn. 2 Introduction: 1.Definition of neonatal period: A period from birth 4 weeks postnatal. After the initial observation for neonatal condition.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Normal Newborn. 2 Introduction: 1.Definition of neonatal period: A period from birth 4 weeks postnatal. After the initial observation for neonatal condition."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Normal Newborn

2 2 Introduction: 1.Definition of neonatal period: A period from birth 4 weeks postnatal. After the initial observation for neonatal condition requiring immediate intervention, the baby is sent to the normal newborn nursery or maternity floor for the purpose of follow up and stabilization.

3 3 The role of the neonatal nurse & physician inside the normal newborn nursery or maternity floor:

4 4  Admission Care: The role of the nurse is: - To carry out good interpersonal communication. - To take complete history about the mother and neonate. - To be sure that the neonate has identification band. - To perform complete physical assessment (General appearance, V.S, G.M, Gestational age assessment). - Prevention of hemorrhage (administer vit K if not given in the delivery room). - Documentation.

5 5  Assessment: The initial assessment: APGAR scoring system Purpose: is to assess the newborn´S immediate adjustment to extrauterine life

6 6 Transitional assessment (Periods of reactivity): I) First period of reactivity: Stage 1: during the first 30 min. through which the baby is characterized as Physiologically unstable ( ), very alert, cries vigorously, may suck a fist greedily, & appears very interested in the environment.

7 7 Stage 2: it lasts for about 2-4 hours, through this period; all V.S & mucus production are decreased. The newborn is in state of sleep and relative calm.

8 8 II) Second period of reactivity: it lasts for about 2-5 hours, through which the newborn is alert and responsive, heart & respiratory rate, gastric & respiratory secretions are increased & passage of meconium commonly occurs. Following this stage is a period of stabilization through which the baby becomes physiologically stable & a vacillating pattern of sleep and activity.

9 9 passage of meconium

10 10 Assessment of Gestational age: (High-risk neonate)

11 11 Systematic Physical examination: - Growth measurements - Vital Signs - General appearance:. Posture: Flexion of head & extremities, taking them toward chest & abdomen

12 12 Head Circumference

13 13 Posture

14 14. Skin: General description: At birth; color: bright red, texture: soft and has good elasticity. Edema is seen around eye, face, and scrotum or labia. Cyanosis of hands & feet (acrocyanosis)

15 15 General description of the skin

16 16 Acrocyanosis

17 17 1.Vernix Caseosa: Soft yellowish cream layer that may thickly cover the skin of the newborn, or it may be found only in the body creases and between the labia. The debate of wash it off or to keep it.

18 18 Vernix Caseosa

19 19 2. Lanugo hair: - Distribution - The more premature baby is, the heavier the presence of lanugo is. - It disappears during the first weeks of life

20 20 Lanugo hair

21 21 3. Mongolian spots: Black coloration on the lower back, buttocks, anterior trunk, & around the wrist or ankle. They are not bruise marks or a sign of mental retardation, they usually disappear during preschool years without any treatment.

22 22 Mongolian spots

23 23 Mongolian spots

24 24 Mongolian spots

25 25 4. Desquamation: - Peeling of the skin over the areas of bony prominence that occurs within 2-4 weeks of life because of pressure and erosion of sheets.

26 26 Desquamation

27 27 5. Physiological Jaundice: 6. Milia: - Small white or yellow pinpoint spots. - Common on the nose, forehead, & chin of the newborn infants due to accumulations of secretions from the sweat & sebaceous glands that have not yet drain normally. They will disappear within 1-2 weeks, they should not expressed.

28 28 Physiological Jaundice

29 29 Physiological Jaundice

30 30 Milia

31 31 7. Head: The Anterior fontanel: is diamond in shape, located at the junction of 2 parietal & frontal bones. It is 2-3 cm in width & 3-4 cm in length. It closes between 12-18 months of age. The posterior fontanel: is triangular in shape, located between the parietal & occipital bones. It closes by the 2 nd month of age.

32 32 Fontanels should be flat, soft, & firm. It bulge when the baby cries or if there is increased in ICP. Two conditions may appear in the head: Caput succedaneum & cephlhemtoma

33 33 Caput succedaneum An edematous swelling on the presenting portion of the scalp of an infant during birth, caused by the pressure of the presenting part against the dilating cervix. The effusion overlies the periosteum with poorly defined margins. Caput succedaneum extends across the midline and over suture lines. Caput succedaneum does not usually cause complications and usually resolves over the first few days. Management consists of observation only.

34 34

35 35 Caput succedaneum

36 36 Caput succedaneum

37 37 Caput succedaneum

38 38 Cephalhematoma: Cephalhematoma is a subperiosteal collection of blood secondary to rupture of blood vessels between the skull and the periosteum, in which bleeding is limited by suture lines (never cross the suture lines).

39 39 Cephalhematoma

40 40 Cephalhematoma

41 41 8. Eyes: - Usually edematous eye lids - Gray in color. True color is not determined until the age of 3-6 months. - Pupil: React to light - Absence of tears - Blinking reflex is present in response to touch - Can not follow an object (Rudimentary fixation on objects).

42 42 Normal Eye

43 43 Eyelid Edema

44 44 Dysconjugate Eye Movements

45 45 Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

46 46 Congenital Glaucoma

47 47 Congenital Cataracts

48 48 9. Ears: Position: Startle Reflex: Pinna flexible, cartilage present.

49 49 Normal Ears

50 50 Ear Tag

51 51 10. Nose: Nasal Patency (stethoscope). Nasal discharge – thin white mucous

52 52 Normal Nose

53 53 Dislocated Nasal Septum

54 54 11. Mouth & Throat: - Intact, high arched palate. - Sucking reflex – strong and coordinated - Rooting reflex - Gag reflex - Minimal salivation

55 55 12. Neck : Short, thick, usually surrounded by skin folds.

56 56 Neck

57 57  System assessment of the neonates: 1. Gastrointestinal System: Mouth should be examined for abnormalities such as cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Epstein pearls are brittle, white, shine spots near the center of the hard palate. They mark the fusion of the 2 hollows of the palate. If any; it will disappear in time.

58 58 Cleft Palate

59 59 Cleft Lip

60 60 Cheeks: Have a chubby appearance due to development of fatty sucking pads that help to create negative pressure inside the mouth which facilitates sucking.

61 61 Epstein Pearls & cheeks

62 62 Normal Tongue Ankyloglossia

63 63 Ankyloglossia

64 64 Gum: May appear with a quite irregular edge. Sometimes the back of gums contain whitish deciduous teeth that are semi-formed, but not erupted

65 65 Irregular edges with Natal Teeth

66 66 Natal Tooth

67 67 13. Abdomen:

68 68 Abdomen Cylindrical in Shape

69 69 Normal Umbilical Cord Bluish white at birth with 2 arteries & one vein.

70 70 Meconium Stained Umbilical Cord

71 71 14. Circulatory system : Heart: Apex- lies between 4 th & 5 th intercostal space, lateral to left sternal border.

72 72 15. Respiratory system : Slight substernal retraction evident during inspiration

73 73 15. Respiratory system Cont. : Xiphesternal process evident

74 74 15. Respiratory system Cont. : Respiratory is chiefly abdominal Cough reflex is absent at birth, present by 1-2 days postnatal. Possible signs of RDS are: - Cyanosis other than hands & feet. - Flaring of nostrils. - Expiratory grunt-heard with or without stethoscope.

75 75 16. Urinary System : Normally, the newborn has urine in the bladder and voids at birth or some hours later.

76 76 Female genitalia

77 77 Female genitalia Cont. Labia & Clitoris are usually edematous. Urethral meatus is located behind the clitoris. Vernix caseosa is present between labia

78 78 Normal Male genitalia Urethral opening is at tip of glans pens. Testes are palpable in each scrotum. Scrotum is usually pigmented, pendulous & covered with rugae.

79 79 17. Endocrine system : Swollen breasts: Appears on 3 rd day in both sex, & lasts for 2-3 weeks and gradually disappears without treatment. N.B: The breasts should not be expressed as this may result in infection or tissue damage.

80 80 Maternal hormonal withdrawal Female genitalia, normal with vaginal discharge

81 81 Infantile menstruation

82 82 18. The Central Nervous system : Reflexes: Successful use of reflex mechanism is a strong evidence of normal functioning CNS.

83 83 Reflexes Moro Reflex

84 84 Extremities Nail beds pink

85 85 Extremities Cont. Meconium Stained fingernails

86 86 Extremities Creases on anterior two thirds of sole.

87 87 Common feet abnormalities Club Feet

88 88 Immediate Care of the Newborn:

89 89 Immediate Care of the Newborn: 1. Clear airway. 2. Established respiration. 3. Maintenance of body temperature. 4. Protection from Hge. 5. Identification.

90 90 APGAR Score Score / Item 21zero Heart beats> 100 b/min Strong < 100 b/min Or weak beats No heart beats Cry & breathing Strong crying weak crying / irregular breathing No cry / breathing ColorPink body & face Pink body & blue extremities Pale or blue body Movement & tone ActiveSome movementsFlaccid GrimaceTry to keep cath. away Grimace of faceNo response

91 91 The Four modalities by which the infant lost his/ her body temperature: 1- Evaporation: Heat loss that resulted from expenditure of internal thermal energy to convert liquid on an exposed surface to gases, e.g.: amniotic fluid, sweat. Prevention: Carefully dry the infant after delivery or after bathing.

92 92 2- Conduction: Heat loss occurred from direct contact between body surface and cooler solid object. Prevention: Warm all objects before the infant comes into contact with them.

93 93 3- Convection: Heat loss is resulted from exposure of an infant to direct source of air draft. Prevention: · Keep infant out of drafts · Close one end of heat shield in incubator to reduce velocity of air.

94 94 4- Radiation: It occurred from body surface to relatively distant objects that are cooler than skin temperature.

95 95 تابع الأهداف التعليميه : 3. معرفة العناصر المكونه لمقياس أبجار وكيف ومتي يتم إستخدامه ومن ثم إدراك أهميته. 4. معرفة كيفية العنايه بالحبل السري. 5. تقديم العنايه الروتينيه للمولود فور الإطمئنان علي ثبات العلامات الحيويه حول معدلاتها الطبيعيه. 6. إدراك أهمية ومميزات البدء المبكر في إعطاء الرضاعه الطبيعيه سواء بالنسبه للأم أ, المولود.

96 96 *) General management: 1- Infant should be warmed quickly by wrapping in a warm towel. 2- Uses extra clothes or blankets to keep the baby warm. 3- If the infant is in incubator, increase the incubator’s temperature. 4- Use hot water bottle (its temperature 50 °C). 5- Food given or even intravenous solution should be warm. 6- Avoid exposure to direct source of air drafts. 7- Check body temperature frequently. 8- Give antibiotic if infection is present.

97 97 Thank you

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